Egypt and Greece Before Alexander
THE RELATIONS BETWEEN GREECE. AND EGYPT DURING THE Vllth. AND VHIth CENTURIES B.C.*. PART II such in brief is the history of the part played by . was a critical date for Egypt's relationship with Greece — that's when Alexander the Great took . How did religion influence the culture of ancient Egypt?. Apr 14, We think of Ancient Greece as, well, “ancient”, and it is now known to go back to Mycenaean culture of the second half of the 2nd millennium.
At times he held Cyprus and even parts of mainland Greece. When these conflicts were over, he was firmly in control of Egypt and had strong claims disputed by the Seleucid dynasty to Palestine. He called himself king of Egypt from BC.
By the time he abdicated in BC, in favour of one of his sons, the Ptolemaic dynasty was secure. Ptolemy and his descendants showed respect to Egypt's most cherished traditions — those of religion — and turned them to their own advantage.
Alexandria became the centre of the Greek and Hellenistic world and the centre of international commerce, art and science. Egypt Roman province Under Greco-Roman rule, Egypt hosted several Greek settlements, mostly concentrated in Alexandriabut also in a few other cities, where Greek settlers lived alongside some seven to ten million native Egyptians. Katz notes that "research in papyri dating from the early centuries of the common era demonstrates that a significant amount of intermarriage took place between the Greek and Egyptian communities".
Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. February Raghib Pasha ca. As Herodotus recounts, the successful political unifier of Egypt, Psammetichus, BCE sought advice from an oracle whose reply was that bronze men from the sea would assist him. Sea-raiders from Greek Asia Minor did arrive, wearing bronze armor, and were persuaded to assist the would-be pharaoh.
In return for their success, he awarded them land on each side of the Nile River, a grant that was far more significant than the right to trade occasionally in a specified emporion. Greeks were allowed to reside in Egypt; perhaps, initially, only to ensure the success of Psammetichus.
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Yet, in the early sixth century Pharaoh Apries relied on the military aid of these same Greeks and his successor Amasis granted a Greek emporion at Naukratis the privilege of being the single center for trade conducted by its residents, Greeks from specific states in the Aegean and Egyptians, together with non-resident foreign merchants. The economic privilege was accompanied by mutual respect for cultural differences: Herodotus wrote that he would never admit that certain similarities between Greek and Egyptian customs as mere coincidence.
The excavated evidence from the site of Naukratis demonstrates this commingling. Testimony of the value of a special relationship with Egypt is clear in the form of evidence: In the sixth century, Greeks living in small states in Asia Minor began to use precious metals to mint coins, especially valuable for trade purposes.
Each state fashioned its coinage to reflect its independence. The Greeks of Naukratis were early minters. Forming a coalition of states eager to end the Persian threat; they would cooperate under the leadership of Athens. After a decisive defeat of the Persians in orAthens led Greek states in an attempt to free Egypt from its Persian overlordship.
Athens, not privileged Naukratis, was in pursuit of its own empire and knew the value of the inclusion of Egypt.
Greeks in Egypt
The Athenian attempt failed. After the success of the Macedonians in Anatolia and the Levanthe turned to Egypt. More than the wealth of Egypt, Alexander cultivated a special relationship with the Egyptian god Ammon.
Alexander trekked to his oracle at the oasis at Siwah, deep in the desert to the west of the Nile, to ask the god about his parentage. As might be expected, the Ptolemaic period saw an increasing fusion of Greek and Egyptian culture. The Ptolemaic rulers encouraged Greek colonists to settle in Egypt. They came, settled widely, and brought their laws, language, and gods with them. And the Macedonian conquerors were in a position to impose elements of Greek culture on the Egyptians. However, major Egyptian deities such as Isis and Osiris were sculpted in the Hellenic style and became widely worshipped both in and outside Egypt by non-Egyptians, including Greeks.Ancient Egyptian Gods vs Ancient Greek Gods
In time, Isis worship became one of the most popular religious traditions in the Mediterranean world and some of the last pagan temples to survive through the Roman control of Egypt beginning in 30 BCE and the slow Christianization throughout its empire were temples to the goddess Isis. The Greek language also influenced Egypt. While native Egyptian scribes had begun simplifying the ancient and complex hieroglyphic system long before Macedonians ruled Egypt, either during the late Macedonian or early Roman period, some Egyptian scribes began to use the Greek alphabet to write the native Egyptian language.
This Hellenized Egyptian emerged as the final form of the ancient Egyptian language. However, this process took a thousand years. Coptic may not have been extinguished as a spoken language until the early modern period. It remains today the liturgical language of more than 10 million Coptic Christians in Egypt and around the world.
The deep relationship between Greece and Egypt persists to this day. Modern Greek history has been dominated by the struggle to achieve self-government rather than control by foreign powers through the king installed by Great BritainFrance, and Russia.
The exiled government was especially attracted to Alexandria because it had received a large Greek population in the early nineteenth century. The modern Library of Alexandria, one of the great libraries of the world, evokes the Hellenistic Library goal established by the Ptolemaic successors of Alexander, who sought to house every extant manuscript of Greek works.