As objectified body consciousness increased, body dissatisfaction . health such as self-esteem and life satisfaction (Mercurio & Landry, How does women's body image shape their interpersonal relationships? Based on Global Self-Esteem and Relationship Satisfaction Objectification theory: Toward understanding women's lived experiences and mental health risks. New research shows body image also affects relationship quality. The focus on bodily appearance in the media, according to objectification theory, and sexual satisfaction occurs because “body self-consciousness during.
In this direction, studies have shown that intrasexual competition ISCwhich refers to rivalry amongst members of the same sex for access to mates, is strongly associated with drive for thinness and disordered eating behavior in women Abed et al. Thus, it is plausible that non-partnered individuals will invest more attention and resources to become more attractive to prospective partners.
It is noteworthy that people with high amounts of desired characteristics are more likely to couple with others of equally high value e. In fact, because most people in America eventually marry U. Body image attitudes are classified into four components: While this is an important aspect of body image, several others are also relevant to consider in the context of romantic relationships. One dimension of special interest to the present study is the psychological investment in physical appearance, which has been neglected by researchers worldwide.
As reported by Thomas F. Cash in several occasions i. Cash, there are two different forms of appearance investment, namely self-evaluative and motivational. Self-evaluative investment reflects the extent to which individuals define or measure themselves by their physical appearance, which they judge essential in their daily experiences.
Motivational investment refers to the importance of having or maintaining an attractive appearance. It reflects the extent to which individuals engage in behaviors to manage their appearance. Importantly, self-evaluative investment is more dysfunctional than motivational investment Cash, While the first is more predictive of negative body image, the second is thought to be relatively benign.
We were able to find three studies that compared body dissatisfaction between married and single individuals. Friedman, Dixon, Brownell, Whisman, and Wilfley interviewed 16, men and women and investigated whether married individuals have comparable body image disturbance to non-married individuals.
Results demonstrated that marital status was not significantly related to body dissatisfaction, but low marital satisfaction was significantly related to greater body dissatisfaction. Hoyt and Kogan examined body image and relationship satisfaction in male and female college students. The authors concluded that single, engaged, and married participants were equally satisfied with their appearance and physical attractiveness, but individuals who had less satisfying dating situations and sex lives were less satisfied with their overall appearance.
Interestingly, those most dissatisfied with both their dating situations and sex lives were those who were not currently engaged in a dating relationship. Finally, Tom, Chen, Liao, and Shao investigated the importance of body image dissatisfaction as a function of marital status in married couples and single people. Body image dissatisfaction was observed in both married and single people at comparable levels, but single women rated it more important that they strive to change to reach the ideal body than did married women.
The authors concluded that marriage decreases the importance of the ideal, thin, body and makes the impact of the unattainable body less powerful.
Importantly, participants in their study reported high levels of marital satisfaction, leading the authors to speculate that relationship quality may be necessary to the mitigation of the importance of the ideal body image.
In this direction, Juarez and Pritchard examined the effect of three measures of relationship quality on body dissatisfaction in women and men. Results demonstrated a negative correlation between body dissatisfaction and trust and support in men and women, but relationship commitment was not related to body dissatisfaction. In a study conducted by Juda, Campbell, and Crawfordheterosexual women currently involved in a romantic relationship responded to three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory: Body Dissatisfaction, Drive for Thinness, and Maturity Fears; questions measuring perceived parental readiness, and perceptions of social support from their partners, family, and friends.
The authors reported that higher levels of dieting symptomatology were uniquely associated with perceptions of relatively low levels of available support from romantic partners. Some researchers included both partners in their studies to evaluate the influence of relationship functioning on body image.
The study conducted by Morrison, Doss, and Perez with 88 heterosexual couples explored the relations between eating, weight, and shape concerns and relationship functioning i. As could be noticed in some studies cited above Juda et al. Preoccupation on being overweight includes worries about being or becoming fat, consciousness of small changes in weight, and diet practices Cash, In fact, some researchers have demonstrated that dieting behaviors can be associated to relationship status and relationship quality.
Five hundred and fifty-four undergraduates were interviewed, and results demonstrated that overweight women were less likely to be dating than their peers, and that weight was positively correlated with relationship satisfaction in men, but negatively correlated with satisfaction in women. Finally, Boyes, Fletcher, and Latner investigated unhealthy dieting e. Results demonstrated that intimate relationships are linked in important ways with dieting and body image but that related psychological processes operate differently for men and for women.
In this sense, several theories can be applied to determine which aspect of love is important to be considered. The theory holds that love can be understood in terms of three components: In addition, little is known about body image in the context of different types of relationships.
For example, there are several differences between marriage and cohabitation, whether the latter is thought as an alternative or a precursor to marriage. On the other hand, cohabitation resembles marriage in several respects, providing individuals security to a greater extent than non-cohabitation.
Thus, one might postulate that body image experiences may vary according to relationship arrangements. In sum, further research exploring the connections between romantic relationships and body image is still needed. Fredrickson and Roberts made specific theoretically-grounded predictions about self-objectification and sexual dysfunction; namely, that self-objectification would lead to decreased sexual satisfaction.
The hypothesized mediating process is that self-objectification leads to shame and anxiety, which in turn results in the inability to connect with internal bodily states, something that is centrally important for experiencing sexual pleasure.
Results from several studies support this prediction. Roberts and Gettman experimentally induced a state of self-objectification in young men and women and found that, for women, this led to reduced interest in sexual relationships.
In a correlational study, self-objectification was associated with lower levels of sexual assertiveness in 12th grade girls Impett et al.
In addition, several researchers have found links between sexual dysfunction and variables that are closely correlated with self-objectification, such as self-consciousness or body shame. Sanchez and Kiefer found that, in a sample of both men and women, the relationship between body shame and sexual problems was mediated by sexual self-consciousness during physical intimacy.
Similarly, using an all-female Australian sample, Steer and Tiggemann found that self-consciousness during sex mediated the negative relationship between both body shame and appearance anxiety with sexual functioning.
In the present study, we aim to add to this pattern of findings by testing for the presence of a negative relationship between self-objectification and sexual satisfaction, a variable that has not yet been investigated.
Although Fredrickson and Roberts theorized only about sexual behavior and sexual functioning rather than about romantic relationships more broadly, we believe that objectification theory can support predictions related to other aspects of romantic relationships. Because appearance and sexual attraction are generally accepted as being relevant to romantic relationships, the anxiety and shame from self-objectification may be heightened in the context of a romantic relationship, leading to decreased relationship satisfaction.
Empirical research on the association between self-objectification and relationship satisfaction has been sparse. Sanchez and Broccoli found a significant correlation between self-objectification and decreased relationship satisfaction in a sample of college women. They also found that priming romantic relationships led to an increase in self-objectification in single women, suggesting that there is a link between self-objectification and attempts to find a romantic partner.
In the present study, we examine the relationship between self-objectification and satisfaction in romantic relationships in a sample of both female and male U. Partner-objectification Much of the empirical research on objectification has focused on the consequences of self-objectification.
However, objectification theory Fredrickson and Roberts states that self-objectification is an internalization of the objectifying perspectives of other people; thus, objectification by others is hypothesized to precede self-objectification and is thus the more primary or foundational causal agent. Although a growing number of studies are attempting to articulate the processes whereby objectification by others is internalized as self-objectification for a review, see Moradi and Huangmuch less research has focused on the direct consequences of objectifying other people.
An important contribution of this paper is that it examines implications of objectification not only for the objectified, but also for those doing the objectification. Indeed, Strelan and Hargreavesusing a mixed-gender Australian sample, found that objectifying other people is actually a rather common experience.
In fact, women are more likely to objectify other women than to objectify themselves. They also found that those who self-objectify are more likely to objectify others. Additionally, women are objectified more than men by both men and women. It seems likely, then, that the present study will show a relationship between self- and partner-objectification, such that the more individuals objectify themselves, the more they will objectify a partner.
Objectifying others may have particular outcomes when the person objectified is a romantic partner.
The emphasis on appearance and physical attraction in romantic relationships would seem to increase the probability that people will objectify their romantic partners. We will also test the relationship between partner-objectification and sexual satisfaction. The present study will begin to tease apart these competing hypotheses by examining the relationship between partner-objectification and sexual satisfaction. A Predictor of Self- and Partner-objectification: Consumption of Objectifying Media Self- and partner-objectification may arise from a number of different sources.
Subsequent research has found evidence for this connection e. Some studies have failed to find a relationship between viewing television or listening to certain music and increased self-objectification, but have shown a positive relationship between reading magazines and self-objectification e. Therefore, the present study investigates media consumption in general as well as by genre e. When viewing media that objectify women, both men and women may internalize the message that women are sexual objects, whose worth should be based upon their appearance.
Previous research has shown evidence for this process, both correlationally Ferris et al.