Chlorophyll and carotenoids relationship memes

Photosynthetic Pigments

chlorophyll and carotenoids relationship memes

A scheme of the α-carotene-to-Chl a singlet energy transfer is proposed In relation to photoprotection, the chlorophyll-to-carotenoid (Chl-to-Car) triplet of the cytochrome b6f complex: de plus ça change de plus c'est la même chose. J Gen Physiol. May 20;39(5) The relationship between chlorophyll and the carotenoids in the algal flagellate, Euglena. WOLKEN JJ, MELLON AD. We have obtained an action spectrum for chlorophyll formation in Euglena gracilis. This action spectrum is similar to the absorption spectrum of protochlorophyll.

It is chlorophyll that sets off a series of electron transfer reactions that eventually reduces carbon dioxide CO2 to carbohydrates. Chlorophyll is well-known for its green appearance and for being the most abundant photosynthetic pigment on Earth. Since its original discovery, dozens of types of chlorophyll molecules have been discovered.

chlorophyll and carotenoids relationship memes

Molecularly, they are all cyclic tetrapyrroles and usually contain a central magnesium ion. Chlorophyll and carotenoids are both light-harvesting pigments, but chlorophyll is the most abundant and the most critical for photosynthesis. The different types of chlorophylls, working in combination, are able to absorb light over much of the photosynthetic spectrum, fromnanometers.

Accessory pigments are required to fill this absorption gap.


Ad A second limitation of chlorophylls arises out of the very characteristic that makes them such powerful pigments in the photosynthetic system: That ability, however, also leads to a tendency to generate toxic reactive oxygen species.

Again, accessory pigments, carotenoids in particular, are able to help solve this problem. Carotenoids are chromophores that are usually red, orange or yellow in color.

Flowers, corals, and even animal skin contain pigments which give them their colors.

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More important than their reflection of light is the ability of pigments to absorb certain wavelengths. Because they interact with light to absorb only certain wavelengths, pigments are useful to plants and other autotrophs --organisms which make their own food using photosynthesis. In plantsalgae, and cyanobacteriapigments are the means by which the energy of sunlight is captured for photosynthesis.

However, since each pigment reacts with only a narrow range of the spectrum, there is usually a need to produce several kinds of pigments, each of a different color, to capture more of the sun's energy. There are three basic classes of pigments.

Chlorophylls are greenish pigments which contain a porphyrin ring. This is a stable ring-shaped molecule around which electrons are free to migrate. Because the electrons move freely, the ring has the potential to gain or lose electrons easily, and thus the potential to provide energized electrons to other molecules.

This is the fundamental process by which chlorophyll "captures" the energy of sunlight. There are several kinds of chlorophyll, the most important being chlorophyll "a". This is the molecule which makes photosynthesis possible, by passing its energized electrons on to molecules which will manufacture sugars.

What Is the Relationship between Chlorophyll and Carotenoids?

All plants, algae, and cyanobacteria which photosynthesize contain chlorophyll "a". A second kind of chlorophyll is chlorophyll "b", which occurs only in "green algae" and in the plants. A third form of chlorophyll which is common is not surprisingly called chlorophyll "c", and is found only in the photosynthetic members of the Chromista as well as the dinoflagellates.

chlorophyll and carotenoids relationship memes

The differences between the chlorophylls of these major groups was one of the first clues that they were not as closely related as previously thought. Carotenoids are usually red, orange, or yellow pigments, and include the familiar compound carotene, which gives carrots their color. These compounds are composed of two small six-carbon rings connected by a "chain" of carbon atoms.