# Experiment relationship force and mass or acceleration

### Investigating Newton's second law of motion

Demonstration A trolley experiences an acceleration when an external force is applied to it. The aim of this datalogging experiment is explore the relationship between the Pass a piece of string with a mass hanging on one end over a pulley. In Newton's analysis of motion, the relationship between the net force acting on a body and its acceleration defines both force and mass. Experiments. Hypothesis- the relationship between Force, mass and Acceleration will be that the Doing a preliminary experiment is necessary when doing any investigation .

In the simplest case, a force applied to an object at rest causes it to accelerate in the direction of the force. However, if the object is already in motion, or if this situation is viewed from a moving inertial reference frame, that body might appear to speed up, slow down, or change direction depending on the direction of the force and the directions that the object and reference frame are moving relative to each other.

## Force, Mass & Acceleration: Newton's Second Law of Motion

The bold letters F and a in the equation indicate that force and acceleration are vector quantities, which means they have both magnitude and direction. The force can be a single force or it can be the combination of more than one force. It is rather difficult to imagine applying a constant force to a body for an indefinite length of time. In most cases, forces can only be applied for a limited time, producing what is called impulse.

### Mass and Acceleration | btcmu.info

For a massive body moving in an inertial reference frame without any other forces such as friction acting on it, a certain impulse will cause a certain change in its velocity. The body might speed up, slow down or change direction, after which, the body will continue moving at a new constant velocity unless, of course, the impulse causes the body to stop. There is one situation, however, in which we do encounter a constant force — the force due to gravitational acceleration, which causes massive bodies to exert a downward force on the Earth.

Notice that in this case, F and g are not conventionally written as vectors, because they are always pointing in the same direction, down. The product of mass times gravitational acceleration, mg, is known as weight, which is just another kind of force.

Without gravity, a massive body has no weight, and without a massive body, gravity cannot produce a force. In order to overcome gravity and lift a massive body, you must produce an upward force ma that is greater than the downward gravitational force mg.

Newton's second law in action Rockets traveling through space encompass all three of Newton's laws of motion. Fit a double segment black card on to the trolley. Clamp the light gate at a height which allows both segments of the card to interrupt the light beam when the trolley passes through the gate.

Measure the width of each segment with a ruler, and enter the values into the software.

Connect the light gate via an interface to a computer running data-logging software. The program should be configured to obtain measurements of acceleration derived from the double interruptions of the light beam by the card. The internal calculation within the program involves using the interruption times for the two segments to obtain two velocities. The difference between these, divided by the time between them, yields the acceleration. A series of results is accumulated in a table. This should also include a column for the manual entry of values for 'force' in newtons.

It is informative to display successive measurements on a simple bar chart. Pull the trolley back so that the mass is raised to just below the pulley.

Position the light gate so that it will detect the motion of the trolley soon after it has started moving. Set the software to record data, then release the trolley. Observe the measurement for the acceleration of the trolley.

Enter from the keyboard '1' 1 newton in the force column of the table. Release the trolley from the same starting point as before. Repeat this several times.

## Forces, acceleration and Newton's laws - AQA

Enter '2' 2 newtons in the force column of the table. Analysis Depending upon the software, the results may be displayed on a bar chart as the experiment proceeds. Note the relative increase in values of acceleration as the slotted mass is increased. The relationship between acceleration and applied force is investigated more precisely by plotting an XY graph of these two quantities.

Use a curve-matching tool to identify the algebraic form of the relationship.