India–United States relations - Wikipedia
Plattdüütsch • polski • português • română • shqip • slovenčina • slovenščina .. Group multiple parking entrances together with a relation using the tags type = site and site = parking. . Games that are covered by this definition include bingo and pachinko. Government services and businesses should not use this tag. India–United States relations (or Indo-American relations) refers to the international relations that exist between the Republic of India and the United States of. A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists . It is especially important in the political science fields of comparative politics and international relations. Like all categories discerned within forms of.
- India–United States relations
- Government-Business Relations
- Relationship between Government and Business Organizations
It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety. Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire.
The Indian early medieval age, CE to CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs. Areas directly governed by the British are shaded pink; the princely states under British suzerainty are in yellow. Historians consider India's modern age to have begun sometime between and The appointment in of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state.
These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe.
Kennedy 's Presidency —63India was considered a strategic partner and counterweight to the rise of Communist China. Kennedy said, Chinese Communists have been moving ahead the last 10 years. India has been making some progress, but if India does not succeed with her million people, if she can't make freedom work, then people around the world are going to determine, particularly in the underdeveloped world, that the only way they can develop their resources is through the Communist system.
The Kennedy administration openly supported India during the Sino-Indian war and considered the Chinese action as "blatant Chinese Communist aggression against India". Defense Secretary Robert McNamara and General Maxwell Taylor advised the president to use nuclear weapons should the Americans intervene in such a situation.
Kennedy insisted that Washington defend India as it would any ally, saying, "We should defend India, and therefore we will defend India.
As an economist, he also presided over the at the time largest US foreign aid program to any country. Following the assassination of Kennedy inIndo-US relations deteriorated gradually.
While Kennedy's successor Lyndon Johnson sought to maintain relations with India to counter Communist China,  he also sought to strengthen ties with Pakistan with the hopes of easing tensions with China and weakening India's growing military buildup as well.
Richard Nixon shifted away from the neutral stance which his predecessors had taken towards Indo-Pakistani hostilities. He established a very close relationship with Pakistan, aiding it militarily and economically, as India, now under the leadership of Indira Gandhiwas seen as leaning towards the Soviet Union.
He considered Pakistan as a very important ally to counter Soviet influence in the Indian subcontinent and establish ties with China, with whom Pakistan was very close.
Later inIndia conducted its first nuclear test, Smiling Buddhawhich was opposed by the US, however it also concluded that the test did not violate any agreement and proceeded with a June shipment of enriched uranium for the Tarapur reactor.
In the late s, with the anti-Soviet Janata Party leader Morarji Desai becoming the Prime Minister, India improved its relations with the US, now led by Jimmy Carterdespite the latter signing an order in barring nuclear material from being exported to India due to India's non-proliferation record. The Reagan Administration provided limited assistance to India.
India sounded out Washington on the purchase of a range of US defence technology, including F-5 aircraft, super computers, night vision goggles and radars. In Washington approved the supply of selected technology to India including gas turbines for naval frigates and engines for prototypes for India's light combat aircraft. There were also unpublicised transfers of technology, including the engagement of a US company, Continental Electronics, to design and build a new VLF communications station at Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, which was commissioned in the late s.
The United States strongly condemned this testing, promised sanctions, and voted in favour of a United Nations Security Council Resolution condemning the tests. President Bill Clinton imposed economic sanctions on India, including cutting off all military and economic aid, freezing loans by American banks to state-owned Indian companies, prohibiting loans to the Indian government for all except food purchases, prohibiting American aerospace technology and uranium exports to India, and requiring the US to oppose all loan requests by India to international lending agencies.
Only Japan joined the US in imposing direct sanctions, while most other nations continued to trade with India. The sanctions were soon lifted. Afterward, the Clinton administration and Prime Minister Vajpayee exchanged representatives to help rebuild relations.
India emerged in the 21st century as increasingly vital to core US foreign policy interests. India, a dominant actor in its region, and the home of more than one billion citizens, is now often characterised as a nascent Great Power and an "indispensable partner" of the US, one that many analysts view as a potential counterweight to the growing clout of China.
Relationship between Government and Business Organizations
In MarchU. Bush collaborated closely with India in controlling and policing the strategically critical Indian Ocean sea lanes from the Suez Canal to Singapore. Bush administrationrelations between India and the United States were seen to have blossomed, primarily over common concerns regarding growing Islamic extremismenergy security, and climate change. Bush commented, "India is a great example of democracy.
It is very devout, has diverse religious heads, but everyone is comfortable about their religion. The world needs India". Bush as "being the most pro-Indian president in American history.
Government-Business Relations - Wikiversity
According to Laskarthe UPA rule has seen a "transformation in bilateral ties with the US", as a result of which the relations now covers "a wide range of issues, including high technology, space, education, agriculture, trade, clean energy, counter-terrorism, etc". SinceWashington and New Delhi have been pursuing a "strategic partnership" that is based on shared values and generally convergent geopolitical interests.
Numerous economic, security, and global initiatives — including plans for civilian nuclear cooperation — are underway. This latter initiative, first launched inreversed three decades of American non-proliferation policy.
Also inthe United States and India signed a ten-year defence framework agreement, with the goal of expanding bilateral security cooperation. The two countries engaged in numerous and unprecedented combined military exercises, and major US arms sales to India were concluded.
According to Michael Kugelman, South and Southeast Asia expert at the Woodrow Wilson International Center, the US was unprepared to meet new challenges in India because of its "inability to keep pace with the transformations. He also said that both countries are strengthening the relations between their defence and research organisations. Narayanancriticised the Obama administration for linking the Kashmir dispute to the instability in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and said that by doing so, President Obama was "barking up the wrong tree.
It also suggested that India take a more proactive role in rebuilding Afghanistanirrespective of the attitude of the Obama Administration. Consequently, the Obama Administration may find itself at odds with India's rigid stance against terrorism. Calling India and the United States "natural allies",  Blake said that the United States cannot afford to meet the strategic priorities in Pakistan and Afghanistan at "the expense of India". She also rebuked protectionist policies, saying that "[United States] will not use the global financial crisis as an excuse to fall back on protectionism.
We hope India will work with us to create a more open, equitable set of opportunities for trade between our nations. Krishna, visited Washington, D.
As leader of the US delegation, Secretary of State Clinton lauded India as "an indispensable partner and a trusted friend". Eisenhower in to ever address a joint session of the Parliament of India.