The reign of Elizabeth
England had lost the last of her territories in France during the reign of Mary, While England and Spain had a good relationship, France could not afford to. When Elizabeth became Queen in on the death of her half-sister Mary, England had a decent relationship with Spain. Mary's marriage to Philip II's foreign policy was to affect much of Europe. In many senses Philip II. Was she a great queen of England or a master of public image? VI (‒ ), Lady Jane Grey (10‒19 July ) and her sister Mary (‒).
In a letter to Philip, he wrote: Not only did Portuguese wealth and overseas territories come into the hands of Madrid — so did the navy. Elizabeth and her ministers now recognised that they faced a potentially far more powerful foe.
France could no longer be guaranteed to be the enemy of Spain as the Catholic League, formed inreceived the support and backing of Philip II. InElizabeth finally agreed to the requests of Leicester and Walsingham. As a result of the Treaty of Nonsuch, Elizabeth agreed to send to the Netherlands 5, foot soldiers and cavalry. But even inElizabeth wanted peace and advised her diplomats in Madrid to pursue this goal. The activities of Drake and the building of the Armada clearly undermined this.
When it became obvious that Spain was creating a huge naval force, which, according to English spies in Spain, was to sail for England with the sole intention of overthrowing Elizabeth, then there was no hope of peace between England and Spain. War was never officially declared in However, even with this background, Elizabeth wanted Leicester to take a cautious approach.
She placed restrictions on what he could militarily do — his sole purpose was to ensure that Spain did not overwhelm the Netherlands.
- Challenges to Elizabeth's rule
- Elizabeth I
- Elizabeth I: An Overview
This was meant to be a signal that Leicester should be defensive as opposed to offensive. Leicester was severely rebuked by the Queen when he made himself Governor-General of the Netherlands as she felt that this would provoke the Spanish even more. On paper Spain had a very strong economy boosted by the vast earnings that came from the New World.
Overwhelmed by this economic gloom, Philip took the decision that the only way out of both these problems was to remove the cause of them — Elizabeth. There were those who advised against the Armada of but Philip ignored them all.
Elizabeth I and Spain
He believed that he was on a mission from God. Its complete failure effectively ended any threat England faced from Spain. Elizabeth did not follow up this success.
If Spain was weak, France might be prompted into resurrecting her association with Scotland — which would be a direct threat to England. England kept troops in the Netherlands for the next 18 years in an effort to get a favourable treaty from the Spanish. Elizabeth offered support to the Protestant Henry IV of France but found him an difficult ally to get on with.
Henry believed that Elizabeth wanted France to go to war with Spain while England looked on and would benefit from the probable weakening of both. In September they wrote to Philip asking for support: We therefore beseech you to send us 2, or 3, soldiers, with money and arms.
She knew that, in political terms, she needed their support but she also felt a deep sense of responsibility for their welfare. For their part, the people were thrilled with their new Queen. Elizabeth was an instant hit. As soon as her Council had been appointed, Elizabeth made religion her priority.Susan Doran On the relationship between Elizabeth I and Mary, Queen of Scots
She recognised how important it was to establish a clear religious framework and between and introduced the acts which made up the Church Settlement. This returned England to the Protestant faith stating that public worship, religious books such as the Bible and prayers were to be conducted in English rather than Latin.
But Elizabeth was careful not to erase all traces of Catholic worship and retained, for example, the traditions of candlesticks, crucifixes and clerical robes. By pursuing a policy of moderation she was attempting to maintain the status quo and, although Puritans were particularly upset by the continuance of some Catholic traditions, an uneasy compromise was reached and maintained throughout her reign.
Top The question of marriage The welfare of her people was of paramount importance to Elizabeth and she once remarked, 'I am already bound unto a husband which is the Kingdom of England. Marriage was a political necessity and a way of forming a useful alliance with a European power. Children would secure the line of succession. This was Elizabeth's duty and she should get on with it. Her ministers knew and Elizabeth certainly knew.
But there was no announcement, no wedding bells. The years passed until in Parliament refused to grant Elizabeth any further funds until the matter was settled. This was a big mistake.
No one told the Queen what to do and, using the skills of rhetoric she had been taught, Elizabeth addressed members of Parliament. The welfare of the country was her priority, not marriage. She would marry when it was convenient and would thank Parliament to keep out of what was a personal matter. This was clever talk from the Queen. She knew the political implications of remaining unmarried but effectively banned further discussion.
But her reluctance to marry was to become one of her biggest headaches. That is not to say that Elizabeth didn't enjoy the company of men. On the contrary she thrived on the adoration of her ministers and knew that flirtation was often the easiest way to get things done.
But neither proposal led to marriage.
As the political landscape in Europe changed, the Queen knew that she would need room to manoeuvre. More than that, Elizabeth simply did not wish to be married. They had known each other for years, and he was one of the first to be appointed to her Council. But their intimacy alarmed the other ministers. Leicester was an unknown quantity. He had the ear of the Queen and might poison her mind against them.
Their anxiety amused Elizabeth, and this gave her an excuse to exert her independence every now and then. But just how close was she to Leicester? The Queen asserted her virginity throughout her life, but was also an attractive woman who thrived on male attention. Whether or not the relationship was ever consummated remains open to speculation. The dashing Earl of Leicester was something of a showman.
Elizabeth I and France - History Learning Site
He wanted to impress the Queen and, in the summer ofthrew a party at Kenilworth Castle which no one could forget. It took years to prepare for. He altered the layout of his castle, building luxurious new apartments for the Queen and her huge entourage. The entertainment lasted several days with fine banquets, jousting and spectacular firework displays. He had shown the Queen how much he adored her and, just as he had hoped, eclipsed everyone else.
It was Leicester's finest hour. He wanted to impress the Queen No matter that the entertainment at Kenilworth practically bankrupted him. That was par for the course. Ministers longed for the glory and prestige a visit from the Queen would bestow on them, and would decorate new residences in her honour.
Houses were even converted into the shape of an 'E' to flatter her. But years of work and expense often ended in disappointment when she failed to visit. Elizabeth was clever to encourage this degree of devotion. She was well aware that plots were being hatched against her and that she needed the undivided loyalty of those around her as protection.
In one such problem presented itself to Elizabeth in the shape of Mary Queen of Scots. She became Queen of Scotland aged only six days following the death of her father, and spent her early childhood with her mother in Scotland.
Elizabeth I and France
In the French King, Henry II, proposed that the young Mary would be an ideal wife for his son, Francis, the marriage forming a perfect alliance between the two countries at a time when England was attempting to exert control over Scotland. Mary went to live at the French court and at the age of fifteen married Francis, heir to the French throne. There was brutal conflict between Protestants and Catholics in Europe at the time. At first she tried to follow a 'middle way' which promoted Protestantism but allowed for forms of worship which would allow Catholics to compromise.
The Pope excommunicated her in The plotters wanted to remove or assassinate Protestant Elizabeth and replace her with Catholic Mary. The 'middle way' failed. Elizabeth became more anti-Catholic as her reign went on. Some extreme Protestants were unhappy with any form of compromise. Elizabeth wanted her people to worship on her terms so that she was ultimately in control. Poverty Poverty was especially high in the countryside, caused by harvest failures and rising prices.
She passed the Poor Law A reform of the existing varied practices.