Similarities in Structure of Mitochondria & Chloroplasts | Sciencing
to Species 1 stemming from the relationship (as indicated) and no or called mitochondria and chloroplasts are mutualistic endosymbionts. To emphasize the significance of this relationship, it is worth noting that poets like . The mitochondria and chloroplasts, The scullions and millers of the cell. Mackellar published an iconic poem (later known as 'My. Country') that highlighted . studies show that mitochondria and chloroplasts are intimately connected by relation to water stress has been extensively studied (Pastore et al., ).
They have outer and inner membranes with an intermembrane space between them. Diagram of a chloroplast, showing the outer membrane, inner membrane, intermembrane space, stroma, and thylakoids arranged in stacks called grana.
Thylakoid discs are hollow, and the space inside a disc is called the thylakoid space or lumen, while the fluid-filled space surrounding the thylakoids is called the stroma. You can learn more about chloroplasts, chlorophyll, and photosynthesis in the photosynthesis topic section. Mitochondria Mitochondria singular, mitochondrion are often called the powerhouses or energy factories of the cell. The process of making ATP using chemical energy from fuels such as sugars is called cellular respirationand many of its steps happen inside the mitochondria.
The mitochondria are suspended in the jelly-like cytosol of the cell. They are oval-shaped and have two membranes: Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion, showing matrix, cristae, outer membrane, and inner membrane.
Modification of work by Matthew Britton; scale-bar data from Matt Russell. The matrix contains mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes. We'll talk shortly about why mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes.
Relationship Between Mitochondrion & Chloroplast - The Metabolic Processes. Cheung
The multi-compartment structure of the mitochondrion may seem complicated to us. That's true, but it turns out to be very useful for cellular respirationallowing reactions to be kept separate and different concentrations of molecules to be maintained in different "rooms. Electrons from fuel molecules, such as the sugar glucose, are stripped off in reactions that take place in the cytosol and in the mitochondrial matrix.
These electrons are captured by special molecules called electron carriers and deposited into the electron transport chaina series of proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. As protons flow back down their gradient and into the matrix, they pass through an enzyme called ATP synthase, which harnesses the flow of protons to generate ATP.
This process of generating ATP using the proton gradient generated by the electron transport chain is called oxidative phosphorylation.
The Evolution of the Cell
The compartmentalization of the mitochondrion into matrix and intermembrane space is essential for oxidative phosphorylation, as it allows a proton gradient to be established. These electrons are captured by special molecules called electron carriers and deposited into the electron transport, a series of proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. For instance, muscle cells typically have high energy needs and large numbers of mitochondria, while red blood cells, which are highly specialized for oxygen transport, have no mitochondria at all.
Both mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own DNA and ribosomes. First, students read their poems to their peers in class, and the class votes on their 3 favorite poems. The students seem to enjoy the recognition of their fellow students and the professors, and the top 3 poets receive significant prizes provided by the professors. Second, the final drafts of poems are collected and compiled into a book see cover at left that is circulated to Department of Biology faculty and various administrative units at Indiana University e.
Finally, the poetry exercise—done at the end of the semester-- represents a pleasant change from studying for final examinations. On its nuclear throne sits DNA, Ruling via transcriptional decree.
The mitochondria and chloroplasts, The scullions and millers of the cell, Produce glucose and ATP for all. Golgi and the reticula, wizards and witches alike, Charms and spells bestow. For such magic makes myriad molecules memorable. Glycosidation, sulfation, cleavage, All within the repertoire of these chemical enchanters.
Fair knights of the round, The peroxisomes and the lysosomes Stoically defend against insidious invaders. Though, with the right key, Entrance is granted.
Past the receptors, new wonders await. Concluding Comments Typical undergraduate science students are usually reluctant—at first—to expand their learning strategies to include the writing of poetry.Mitochondria, Chloroplasts & Bacteria-Updated
Nevertheless, the poetry exercises in our L Writing Workshop in the Logic and Rhetoric of Molecular Biology course 20 students reveal that novel and creative ways of conceptualizing biological phenomena are indeed generated. Perhaps our approach of reviewing for students the historical link between poetry and science lends credibility to our assertion that the two disciplines have enhanced each other.
Indeed, the approach described herein is also being developed elsewhere. For example, EuroStemCell recently began a non-fiction writing competition that includes a poetry category. The scope of that project includes the new fields of embryonic stem cell and regenerative medicine research.
Expert judges choose winners and award cash prizes! Acknowledgement The authors acknowledge Dr. Kirstine Lindemann for her expert editing of this manuscript. Malacinski and Brian Winterman 91 References 1.
Current Contents 29 Further reflections on the poetry-science connection.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts
Current Contents 7 Embryonic stem cell-derived trophoblast differentiation: Endrocrinology, 3RR Metaphors we live by: University of Chicago Press. Why are cells powered by proton gradients? Nature Education, 3 9 International Journal of Arts and Sciences, 5 6 Journal of College Science Teaching, 22 4 Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education, 12 1A Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics, 11 3: The two cultures and the scientific revolution.
Color in science and poetry. The Scientific Monthly, 30 1 The endosymbiotic theory describes how a large host cell and ingested bacteria could easily become dependent on one another for survival, resulting in a permanent relationship.
Over millions of years of evolution, mitochondria and chloroplasts have become more specialized and today they cannot live outside the cell. It's Just a Theory In everyday speech, people use the word theory to mean an opinion or speculation not necessarily based on facts. But in the field of science, a theory is a well established explanation based on extensive experimentation and observation. Scientific theories are developed and verified by the scientific community and are generally accepted as fact.
And both organelles use their DNA to produce many proteins and enzymes required for their function. A double membrane surrounds both mitochondria and chloroplasts, further evidence that each was ingested by a primitive host. The two organelles also reproduce like bacteria, replicating their own DNA and directing their own division.
It is passed down directly from mother to child, and it accumulates changes much more slowly than other types of DNA. Because of its unique characteristics, mtDNA has provided important clues about evolutionary history.
For example, differences in mtDNA are examined to estimate how closely related one species is to another.