Here's looking at: Blue poles by Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock (): Biography of Abstract Expressionist Painter, Founder This method of making abstract art involved dripping and smearing the paint Fellow artist Lee Krasner () (later his wife) was a central influence in .. of a power almost grotesque in relation to its situation - link Pollock to the tribal. Lenore "Lee" Krasner (October 27, – June 19, ) was an American abstract .. Lee Krasner and Jackson Pollock established a relationship with one another in after they both exhibited at the McMillen Gallery. Krasner was intrigued by. Krasner's energetic, pulsating images exemplify her synthesis of abstract form wife to Jackson Pollock, arguably the most significant postwar American painter, .
The family eventually settled in at Riverside, a town near Los Angeles. Here Pollock attended school for a time, before moving into the growing city inwhere he began to study art and to associate with artists. In he moved to New York to join an older brother, Charles, already an art student, and enrolled at the Art Students League in a course given by Thomas Hart Benton He became interested at this period in the mural work of the Mexican painters Diego RiveraJose Clemente Orozcoand David Alfaro Siqueiros Pollock's friendship with Benton remained close even after he ceased to study with him: Nevertheless, during the periodhe took part in the Federal Art Project and began to learn something about modern European painting, both abstract and Surrealist.
In Pollock met a student of Hans Hoffman, Lee Krasnerwho was to become his wife, and who introduced him to the circle of young artists later to become the leaders of Abstract Expressionism. They included William BaziotesRobert Motherwelland Roberto Mattaall of them strongly oriented towards Surrealism.Jackson Pollock & Gutai Artists of Japan
At that time, in the early years of the war, many European artists whose reputation to the young Americans was almost legendary had sought refuge in New York, among them such legendary 20th century painters as Piet MondrianMax Ernstand Andre Masson This influx of great European artists led Peggy Guggenheima noted American collector of 20th century modern artto open a gallery in New York, she had closed her London gallery in Junewhich was part-museum, and part-commercial.
This venue, known as her Art of the Century Gallery opened inas part of her plan to encourage young American painters. Pollock was asked to exhibit and, fascinated by his work, Guggenheim gave him a yearly contract in return for ownership of a substantial part of his output. At the same time she commissioned from him a mural for her New York town house. This painting, now in the collection of the University of Iowa, was Pollock's first really large-scale work, and is a key example of his fusion of European modernism with the scale and new space that were to be characteristic of his own style.
Influence of Surrealism At this time, too, the critic Clement Greenberg began to write articles underlining the importance of Pollock's work. Before the mural, Pollock had painted some interesting and individual works such as The She-WolfMuseum of Modern Art, New York and The Guardians of the SecretSan Francisco Museum but the very titles of these hint at their fundamental reliance on Surrealismwith its intentions and associations drawn from the unconscious.
The forms were powerful, yet retained an affinity with those of Picasso and Andre Massonthe two artists from the School of Paris who, together with Joan Miro, most strongly influenced Pollock. With the mural, however, almost 20 feet in length, a new, pulsating rhythm entered and dominated his work. Densely painted, charged with energy, it created the space of the new American painting.
It was here, during the periodthat he abandoned traditional methods of fine art painting in favour of his own technique of working with liquid paint: Curiously, for most of this time he was not drinking. It referred to Pollock's hallmark technique of dripping paint onto a canvas. Instead of using the traditional easel, he placed his canvases on the floor and dripped, splattered and poured paint synthetic resin-based paints called alkyd enamels onto them from a can, using sticks, trowels or knives - sometimes using a heavy impasto by combining broken glass or other material.
The origin of Pollock's theory and practice of action painting is unclear. He was allegedly introduced to the technique of painting-pouring in at a New York workshop run by the Mexican painter David Alfaro Siqueirosfamous for his large-scale Mexican muralsand later used it on some of his canvases during the early s. Alternatively, he may have heard of experiments conducted in New York during the war, by the emigre surrealist artist Max Ernstwho married Peggy Guggenheim, one of Pollock's most important patrons.
Ernst developed a method of using paint dripped from a swinging can. It followed independent experiments by other abstract painters like his wife Krasner and the influential art teacher Hans Hofmann - see the latter's painting Spring Private Collection, Connecticut. Indeed it is said that both Krasner and Pollock were influenced by the "automatic painting" of Robert Motherwell.
A third possible explanation is that Pollock was introduced to the practice of Navajo Indians in New Mexico, who make their famous sand paintings by sprinkling earth onto the ground to form patterns. Surrealist Automatism Wherever it came from, Pollock's action painting is similar to certain surrealist theories of 'automatic painting', propounded by Salvador Dalithat supposedly allow artists to express their unconscious moods of creativity.
As Pollock himself commented: On the floor I am more at ease. I feel nearer, more part of the painting, since this way I can walk around it, work from the four sides and literally be in the painting.
The edges of his paintings are clear evidence of the care with which he organized the beginning and end of his work, but the struggle between control and freedom which animates the picture surface cannot be missed by the spectator.
Indeed, it is one of the most potent forces in Pollock's art. They attracted a fair amount of attention, but it wasn't until the following year that he became a real celebrity. It happened almost overnight as a result of a 4-page spread in Life magazine August 8, that posed the question, "Is he the greatest living painter in the United States? It was the start of the Pollock public profile as one of the great abstract painters of the midth century. Last Years Inat the height of his fame, Pollock abruptly ceased using his action painting method.
At the same time his palette grew darker; he even produced a series of black pictures painted in oil and enamel paint on unprimed cotton duck canvases. After this he reverted to normal colouration and reintroduced a number of figurative elements. During this period Pollock was experiencing additional commercial pressure from his gallery, and his personal life was becoming increasingly difficult.
Commentators have alleged that his row with Hans Namuth, the photographer who filmed Pollock at work in was also a major irritant. In any event he began drinking heavily once again. Inhe completed his last two works Scent and Search.
Pollock painted nothing inand thus failed to resolve the issue of primacy between the figurative and abstract aspects of his style. On August 11, he died at the wheel of his car when it ran off the road.
Reputation As an Artist ByPollock's paintings and painting methods were having an enormous influence on his contemporaries both in America and Europe; the former included such gesturalists as Willem De Kooning and Franz Kline ; the latter included gestural artists like Wols Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulzesometimes referred to as the "European Jackson Pollock", and the Cobra group leader Karel Appel Since his death, Pollock's reputation - founded on his position as the most representative of the Action painters and the symbol of the triumph of American painting after the Second World War - has never ceased to grow.
If true, it makes it the world's most expensive painting ever. For more details, see: Most Expensive Paintings - Top Paintings by Jackson Pollock hang in some of the best art museums in the world, including: The Key Art Institute of Chicago.
Enchanted Forest Peggy Guggenheim Collection. Number 5 Private collection.
Kramer v. Pollock-Krasner Foundation, 890 F. Supp. 250 (S.D.N.Y. 1995)
Number 9A Tate Modern. Out of the Web Number 7 Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart. Number 10 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Number 29 National Gallery of Canada. Number 7 National Gallery of Art. Portrait and a Dream Dallas Museum of Art. Jackson Pollock The Artist One of the greatest modern artistsPollock was one of the prime movers of abstract painting in America.
His great contribution lay in "going the full nine yards" in his willingness to expend himself extravagantly and profligately, often at the cost of the harmony and coherence of individual paintings, in order to take possession of the modern abstract picture.
Energy, sometimes reduced to an unrelenting rhythmic monotone or mere motor violence, was a hallmark of Pollock's painting. In the beginning these energies were tumultuous, self-fascinated and desperate; in the later phases of his work they were more controlled and impersonal. The superabundance of his pictorial energies - the expression of a power almost grotesque in relation to its situation - link Pollock to the tribal art tradition of romantic exaggeration and hyperbole.
As a distinctly American romantic temperament, Pollock made his own individualism the theme of his art. In an early "dark" style particularly, his paintings functioned as a kind of fever chart of the ecstasies and the torments of his sense of isolation.
The very fact that he felt it necessary to express his anguished sensibility in a Herculean dimension was also in the American grain. If Pollock seemed driven to register his own rancors, fancies and impulses, it was not merely as an act of self-indulgence; his was an honest record of the sensitive man's response to contemporary crisis, an effort to come to terms with a world in which traditional order and traditional values were seriously threatened. The violent emotionalism of his first style marks the rise of a new school of romantic sensibility in American art.
It is new because it has synthesized indigenous modes of feeling as well as the form and language of European modernism. Pollock's tormented individualism connects him to a whole gallery of American romantics from Melville and Poe through Faulkner. His radical achievement was to make the American romantic sensibility viable in abstract art, and to express it unsentimentally. That Pollock was able to move into a significant advanced painting style in the late s, along with a number of other American artists, was due to a curious set of circumstances.
Most important was the international crisis, which made the prevailing regionalist sentiment and the complacent optimism of American scene painting suddenly appear preposterously provincial. A world in dissolution deserved better of the artist than an uneasy aesthetic isolationism which identified virtue in art with the rural western idyl of Thomas Benton, the backwoods folklore of John Steuart Curry, and the somewhat satirical ancestor worship of Grant Wood. The dramatic crisis in European culture drew American artists closer to the spirit of continental modernism, and migration of European intellectuals and artists to these shores renewed vital artistic contacts that had lain moribund for many years.
There was a sense even by the late thirties, as John Peale Bishop has noted, that the European past had been confided to us, since we alone could "prolong it into the future. As a national experience in self-discovery, it both reinforced and offset the new rapprochement with modern European modes. In their eagerness to find a new way for art, Americans began again to consult continental examples; but a newly awakened sense of their own powers made them do so in a more critical and independent spirit.
Of all the artistic influences in the air, the belated discovery of Surrealism was perhaps the most important. Surrealism was one of the major lacunae in our artistic culture, and its absence left the modern American artist without a portion of the romantic patrimony.
The importance of both Dada and Surrealism arose as much from their mood of romantic protest, their state of mind, as it did from their actual program or artistic devices. Although this spirit had never seized the American imagination, in Europe the Surrealists figured prominently in the continuing art revolution which sought to release the artist from the harsh compulsions of modern life, from what one critic has described as the "regimentation of men and the culture of things.
Their "automatism" and rehabilitation of instinct provided a vital alternative to the geometric design and pattern-making of the academicians of Cubism and abstract art. While the rational constructions of the Cubists had given modern art perhaps its most impressive and elevated style, by the late twenties much of the generative power of the movement had been lost or supplanted by an abstract academicism.
In America a decade later, a kind of post-Cubist Byzantinism was considered our most advanced style; it was reflected in the competent, doctrinaire, non-objective art of the American Abstract Artists group. To such currents in art, Surrealism - embodied by its chief theorist Andre Breton - posed the alternative of the spontaneous, of unpremeditated impulse and gave a new primacy to creative freedom. A number of Americans were quick to seize on this alternative and used it to enlarge the expressive possibilities of their art.
Eventually, they subordinated surrealist intuitions completely to their own artistic needs and purposes.
The impact of the surrealist liberties - on the American avant-garde was sharp if somewhat oblique. Pollock was undoubtedly affected by the milieu around Peggy Guggenheim, his first dealer, and his own methods were "automatic" to a degree.
I approach painting the same way I approach drawingthat is, directly, with no preliminary studies. When I am painting, I am not much aware of what is taking place; it is only after that I see what I have done. Later Andre Breton claimed Gorky for Surrealism when he suggested that Gorky treated nature "as a cryptogram. Along with Motherwell and Pollock they all relied on "accident," felicitous or disruptive, to give vitality to their creations. Most active and significant was Peggy Guggenheim who not only became a transmission point for the painting of international Surrealism but introduced their makers, in the flesh, to the American art scene.
For the first time since Duchamp and Picabia had invaded New York in the period of the Armory Show, US artists knew what it actually felt like to live in the midst of an active international art milieu. They were able to keep abreast of the new currents, not by having recourse to the latest issue of Cahiers d'Art as they had in the past, but simply by listening and observing. They must have felt modern art freshly and with a new sense that they were actually living it; contact with many of the impressive reputations of Paris had done something to free them of their provincial diffidence.
More than anything else, it seems now in retrospect, the sudden efflorescence of cosmopolitanism during the war was the inspiration of the new abstract art movements. During the thirties there had been many promising hints of a new synthesis, especially in the painting of Pollock, Gorky and Hofmann, but they were not entirely decisive. The moment of crystallization had to wait until the first years of the forties, and it was only then that the search for abstract idioms assumed the unity of a sustained collective effort.
Hans Hofmann had begun to splash pigment around freely on canvas as early asbut his influence was not so immediately decisive as Pollock's. Gorky had in some ways anticipated Pollock, particularly when he began to paraphrase Picasso in the late thirties; but for all his remarkable instincts and painterly gifts, Gorky lacked the primitive force and energy that seem necessary to bring the new in art.
His remained an epicurean sensibility until the last years of his life when he suddenly seemed to catch fire from the painting atmosphere he himself had been instrumental in creating, Then his art blazed out in passionate fulfilment of his great promise.
The first and most decisive public expression of the new mood came from Pollock. Everything that had been amorphous, contingent on circumstance, and unstable in advanced painting first came into focus in his art with his first New York exhibition in The unwavering pitch at which he registered his own sensations and even revealed his uncertainties, lent a new confidence and security to the American vanguard.
His spirit of monumental intransigence and dynamism helped release energies that had been pent up in American art for twenty years. Pollock's first expression was dark and narrow, haunted by obsessive themes and a self-absorbed romanticism; yet he managed miraculously to preserve a plastic painting rationale derived from the most elevated modern styles. He achieved this even as many fellow-artists, whom we now associate with him, seemed prepared to leave the high road of twentieth-century painting tradition for the byways of myth and symbolism.
From the beginning there was a touch of revolution in Pollock's painting; many artists who now seem more drastic or advanced are still elaborating on some phase of that revolution. But surely none would hesitate to name Pollock as the most critical figure in the emergence of the new genre of abstraction.
Pollock was killed in a tragic automobile accident in the summer of at the age of He grew up in Arizona and Southern California.
Lee Krasner - Wikipedia
She worked in painting, collage painting, charcoal drawing, and occasionally mosaics. She would often cut apart her own drawings and paintings to create her collage paintings. She also commonly revised or completely destroyed an entire series of works due to her critical nature. As a result, her surviving body of work is relatively small. Her changeable nature is reflected throughout her work, which has led critics and scholars to have very different conclusions about her and her work.
She was highly affected by seeing Pollock's work for the first time incausing her to reject Hofmann's cubist style which required working from a human or still life model. She created around forty of these types of paintings until She tried out and rejected many new styles and eventually destroyed most of the work she made in the early s. To create these images, Krasner pasted cut and torn shapes onto all but two of the large-scale color field paintings she created for the Betty Parson's exhibition in She then would paste the fragments on the canvas and add color with a brush when desired.
From this period onwards, she created metaphorical and content-laden art which alludes to organic figures or landscapes. Some assert that she simultaneously demonstrated her admiration for his art while also recontextualizing his aggressive physicality through manipulating his images into a collage format.
While she started painting these images before Pollock's death, they are considered to reflect her feelings of anger, guilt, pain, and loss she experienced about their relationship before and after he died. This exhibition was more well received by critics in comparison to her previous shows in New York. Inshe started working on her second series of collage images.
She began working on these collages after she was cleaning out her studio and discovered some charcoal drawings mostly of figure studies that she completed from to In these collages, the black and gray shapes of the figure studies are juxtaposed against the blank canvas or the addition of brightly colored paint.
Throughout her career, she went through periods of struggle where she would experiment with new styles that would satisfy her means for expression and harshly critique, revise, or destroy the work she would produce. Because of her self-criticism, there are periods of time where little to none of her work exists, specifically the late s and early s.
Since Krasner had learned from Hans Hofmann while Pollock received training from Thomas Hart Bentoneach artist took different approaches to their work. Krasner learned from Hofmann the importance of the abstracting from nature and emphasizing the flat nature of the canvas while Pollock's training highlighted the importance of complex design from automatic drawing.
He was therefore able to make works that were more organized and cosmopolitan. He inspired her to stop painting from human and still life models in order to free her interior emotions and become more spontaneous and gestural through her work.
When they both exhibited their works at a show called "Artists: