of the press prevention and communication –, priming theory , , , –, , reality perception: effect of rhetoric reality TV in interpersonal communication , reconciliation, intergroup – rate how much they watched and enjoyed various reality television shows. ( Havercamp & Reiss, ), interpersonal relationships (Engel, Olson, & Patrick, .. ers' perceptions of superiority—it may not matter much if the storyline is realistic. Research highlights how children's perceptions of television reality increase through interpersonal communication; additionally, children's perceptions of.
One trend observed in the last two decades is the relative increase of reality-framed television programming. RTV makes the personal thoughts, behaviors, and interactions of the characters the main focus of audience attention.
This culture of mediated voyeurism may influence those who are most involved in it, and specific personality traits like authoritarianism may exacerbate these effects. The present focus of mass media research is social constructivism which recognizes that media exert influence on the way audiences structure social reality cf.
This influence is moderated by discourse about media, as peer groups negotiate meanings among themselves. One of RTV's most consistent messages regards NDSD, where personal revelations are not targeted toward specific, individual others, but rather directed at broader audiences. As the personal thoughts of the characters are not yet directly accessible to the viewing audience, the narrative structure of many RTV shows requires the characters to sacrifice traditional privacy by disclosing thoughts and feelings to a broad viewing audience.
The high level of NDSD is presented as necessary and fundamentally normal. Ultimately, RTV participants are rewarded for this behavior with financial gain in the form of prize money, and they often retain their celebrity status even after these programs run their course.
While previous discussions of the genre have included shows such as COPS where some participants the suspects are ostensibly unwilling, this discussion is limited to socially rewarding RTV with participants who willingly disclose their private selves.
Modeling Disclosive Behavior A variety of media effects models have been proposed, including cultivation theory and social cognitive theory.
More specifically, the theory posits that heavy consumers of media align their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors with those observed in the media. Cultivation studies have found that as audiences are exposed to versions of televised reality they begin to cultivate a shared idea of reality. However, cultivation research tends to disregard individual differences and treats viewers as one homogeneous group Potter, To account for these distinctions, the current project examines media use and behavior from the social cognitive perspective.
Social cognitive theory formerly social learning theory; Bandura, attempts to explain how and why people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns. Human functioning is explained as the product of the dynamic interaction of personal, behavioral, and environmental influences. Personal influences include cognitive, affective, and biological factors.
Environmental factors include social context and the informational environment. Finally, Bandura includes behavior as a component of function because individuals can reflect on the effects of their own behavior. This tripartite construct is thus dynamic and highly contextual.
Social cognitive theory uses the term modeling to characterize the process through which an individual observes others, interprets the observed behavior, and adjusts their own behavior in response.
Such observational learning may be the intended outcome of a given behavioral process, such as teaching a child to feed itself. However, Bandura notes that modeling may occur in many other contexts, indeed wherever an individual is able to observe others' behavior. In comparison to the quantity of information about the world available in daily life, the amount of environmental information provided via media is vast.
To the extent that one's images of reality are mediated and vicarious rather than directly experiential and experimental, the greater the impact of the media. Bandura is careful when he explains that modeling is a more complex process than simple mimicry or imitation, and identifies several specific functions of the process. In the present study, the characters in RTV programming also serve as models, but the Web 2.
The wide adoption of Internet platforms such as social network sites and media-sharing sites among the largest demographic of RTV viewers—young adults Hill, —suggest significant potential for interrelated media behavior. Consistent with Rosenwe argue that RTV promotes a culture which equates public visibility with personal success. Specifically, heavy viewers of socially rewarding RTV should be more likely to believe that behavior exhibited on these shows is acceptable and normal.
These viewers may then model this behavior with the tools that are available to them, such as social web technologies. We examine the role that a personality trait—authoritarianism—plays in the context of RTV consumption and subsequent online behavior. The following discussion explains why this trait is of particular interest in to context of social cognitive theory and RTV consumption. RTV may communicate a distinct set of values that heavy consumers emulate, and such emulation may be enhanced by authoritarian Altemeyer, ; personality characteristics.
Little research involving these variables and mass media, however, operationalizes authoritarianism as a trait which influences behavior. The conventionalism dimension of the authoritarian construct would seem to resonate most strongly with social cognition and cultivation theories, as cultural norms and values may be fostered by heavy media use.
People high in authoritarianism tend to respect and defer to those in traditional roles of power, such as political and religious leaders, police, and parents. Interestingly, authoritarianism appears to operate independently of both age and gender, as no significant interactions have been found in decades of research.
It is likely that heavy consumers of a given television genre, such as socially rewarding RTV, may believe that the genre's values are conventional and normal. Individuals with highly authoritarian personalities may be increasingly likely to bring their attitudes and behaviors in line with this frame of conventionality. In sum, television content presents norms and behaviors which may differ from those of the audience.
In the specific context of RTV, these norms reflect the relaxation of personal boundaries of privacy and emphasize the benefits of public visibility. As individuals find themselves competing for a finite resource—the attention of others in a mediated environment—they may look for behavioral models that are successful in this social sphere. From a normative perspective, NDSD is a hallmark of RTV content, and within the genre of socially rewarding RTV participants are rewarded with attention and often celebrity status and cash prizes.
Consistent with Calvertwe suggest this RTV genre demonstrates a value system which equates visibility and celebrity status with social prestige and personal value. New media technologies allow people to participate in an encompassing and active global media ecology which seemingly allows average people to achieve, or at least emulate, this celebrity.
Webpages, podcasting, and webcasting provide access that can rival the reach and influence of major media organizations. The following section discusses these new technologies and presents our hypotheses about their relationship to changing notions of privacy and disclosure.
New Media and Self-Disclosure Research on blogs suggests that hallmark features include format and content analogous to traditional journals. Schiano, Nardi, Gumbrecht, and Swartz found that bloggers use this technology for personal expression and expect interaction with their audience through a variety of communication channels. Bloggers leverage the interactive nature of the Internet to disseminate traditionally personal, private information.
The public sharing of photos, via specialized platforms like Flickr http: Likewise, posting personal videos, often shot using inexpensive digital cameras or mobile devices, is gaining in popularity as evidenced by the popularity of YouTube http: Although motivations and contexts for these behaviors may vary, media sharing presents strong elements of NDSD when access to the media is not restricted to a particular set of others. This section discusses each of these activities and presents specific hypotheses for three online behaviors: Blogs are a reconfiguration of existing web-based tools: These tools enable anyone with access to a computer and the Internet to create and maintain a blog because little technical knowledge i.
Stefanone and Jang suggest that some bloggers use this medium to maintain strong tie relationships, although disclosure via blogs is still nondirected in nature. Strong tie contacts are characterized by frequent, reciprocal communication and usually a long, stable history of interaction and typically constitute relationships with family and close friends.
This group of contacts is also characterized as a social support network SSN. On the other hand, weak ties are characterized by infrequent communication, low reciprocity, and a lack of emotional closeness Granovetter, ; Thus, accounting for the social context of people's technology use adds explanatory power and should be included when examining online behavior.
In accordance with social cognitive theory, we suggest that people who observe NDSD presented as a positive behavior may model this activity, provided an appropriate context. Personal blogs may provide one such context.
Heavy RTV viewing has a positive relationship with the likelihood to maintain personal-journal style blogs. Also recall that authoritarianism is associated with conventionalism, the tendency to model behavior deemed to be appropriate and normal. As NDSD is perhaps more conventional within the discourses of RTV than in the broader culture, more authoritarian viewers may be more apt to model this apparently normalized behavior.
It is likely that the interaction between RTV consumption and this personality trait will result in stronger modeling tendencies in the context of NDSD. The combination of heavy RTV viewing and authoritarianism has a positive relationship with the likelihood to maintain personal-journal style blogs.
Social cognitive theory also suggests that the environment of the learning process, such as the social context, may influence behavioral outcomes. Watching RTV with friends may introduce a ritualistic or normative aspect that is not necessarily present when watching television alone. To the extent that watching RTV cultivates a set of beliefs and attitudes about self-disclosure and celebrity, it is likely these norms will be further reinforced if participants view RTV with friends, as these social networks function to sustain and promote these norms in a variety of other social contexts.
Watching RTV with friends has a stronger positive relationship with the likelihood to maintain blogs, opposed to watching RTV alone. Video has only recently become a highly distributed and accessible medium. Video production required expensive cameras and recording media film, VHSdistribution required bulky and fragile physical media cartridges, tapesand playback was only possible on further specialized equipment projectors, televisions, and VCRs. Advances in digital imaging technologies have rapidly changed video into a practical and normalized communication medium.
YouTube allows users to easily share and discuss video content uploaded from webcams, mobile devices, and other sources.
YouTube currently ranks among the top four most-visited sites on the web Alexa traffic rankings, http: Young adults are voracious consumers of online video, with three-quarters of the age 18—29 demographic reporting that they download or stream video Madden, Of these young video viewers, over half watch videos with others or recommend links to others, while nearly a quarter of this demographic rates videos or post comments about them.
The participants for the survey portion would be gathered through online where the survey would be shared through various Korean Drama Fan Clubs formed on Facebook. The participants will only be taken into account if the participants resides in the following Asian countries; Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Thailand. The six distinct love styles are as follows: People who are Eros have the tendency of immediate recognition, when meeting a potential partner.
They want to be involved with and trust their partners at all levels. Eros love is considered romantic. Ludus tends to not focus on intensity; rather they treat love as a game to be played and not necessarily with any serious intentions. Ludus love is often played with several partners at a time.
Ludus love seeks for different partners to be enjoyed for different qualities in different activities. This love style is similar to what is culturally known as flirting. Storge tends to have a strong sense of friendship in which the love relationship is built to establish the partnership based on similarity and completion of attitudes and values. This similarity is more important to Storge lovers rather than physical appearance or sexual satisfaction because they prefer long-term commitment to short-term excitement.
This love style is known as soul-mating. Pragma tends to be practical and treats love as a kind of transaction towards physical attraction as only part of the relationship and not always the most crucial part.
People with Pragma has the tendency to look for a suitable partner that has a rewarding life that can be developed based on a list of qualities sought in a partner. Mania tends to be characterized by emotional highs and lows, possessiveness, dependence, jealousy, and insecurity.
Another factor might be the physical symptoms such as difficulty in eating or sleeping.
They put more emphasis on spiritual qualities. The online survey would cover the perimeters on the type of perceived reality. The online survey would be created from the findings obtained on the 20 South Korea TV soap opera and the operational definition of perceived reality by Potter All participants will be ensured that the information provided including personal information and identity would remain anonymous and confidential at all times.
The study would remain full transparency towards the participants, thus the participants will know the purpose of the research. An official email would be sent out to the selected venues for data collection and they have the rights to object the study to be carried out in their premise. Should they decide not to be part of this research, the participant is free to reject and not partake in it. Examining the association between exposure to television portraying interpersonal conflict and the use of controlling behaviors in romantic relationships.
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