Lessons learned from Give and Take - RWieruch
Adam Grant, author of the best-selling book Give and Take, shares why "givers" in relationships are the most successful and attractive. New research suggests that the success of your relationship depends on your Romantic According to Adam Grant, author of Give and Take: A Revolutionary Approach to Grant offers a list of tips, but one that stood out to me was the idea of. In Give and Take, Wharton professor Adam Grant argues that givers by asking questions, signaling vulnerability, and seeking advice. . or never have developed a warm trusting relationship rather than a transactional one.
Lessons learned from Give and Take
They harbor doubts about other people's intentions. Treat others with suspicion and distrust. If they are impressed by someone else, they usually the feel threatened and are less willing to support and develop that person. Matchers - will ask someone for a favor if they can feel they can offer something in return.
This hampers them as they feel uncomfortable asking for advice or help unless they can reciprocate. Always keeping a mental score. Givers - More willing to see the potential in everyone and try and bring out the best in people.
Get immense satisfaction out of helping others.
Give and Take Quotes by Adam M. Grant
Give for the satisfaction of helping others. If you want to find out where you stand, go here: Dormant ties - we all have people who we used to see or know well but have since lost contact with them. A study by Daniel Levin, Jorge Walter, and Keith Murnighan, found that people who are "dormant ties" are valuable contacts for advice.
Over the past few years, while they were out of touch, they had been exposed to new ideas and perspectives. Establishing dominance will not work to persuade others, but having prestige by using powerless speech is supporting it. When speaking to subordinates, research shows that there are particular places for powerful speech: But when most employees are proactive, generating new ideas […], powerful speech backfires.
It is always a difficult topic.
Givers put the other person in their shoes. The other person has to consider it from a different perspective. Givers are able to change the point of view of the other person.
Whereas a manager would have seen the best interest for the company in the beginning of the conversation, the manager would see now the benefits and opportunities for the employee. The manager puts himself or herself as mentor of a mentee. Seeking advice is a subtle way to invite someone to make a commitment to us. How do givers end up at the top instead of the bottom of the success ladder. A lot of givers burn out at some point, because they are not avoiding the pitfalls of giving. Successful givers, it turns out, are just as ambitious as takers and matchers.
Givers have a high other interest, but vary in self-interest. It leads to two types of givers: Adam Grant found out that self-interest and other-interest are independent motivations. These motivations are not competing with each other. Bill Gates once said: He calls it a hybrid engine and concludes that people are successful when they make use of both. How to prevent Giver Burnout? How can givers prevent burnout? Impact of Giving Research shows that givers need a motivation aspect behind their giving.
When teaching, they want to see the progress of their students. Giver burnout is linked to givers who feel that they make no difference.
Companies build up on this knowledge to show their employees the impact they have, regardless of where they are working. By giving, givers build up a network of supporters. These supporters can be accessed any time to get encouragement or advice.
Research shows that otherish givers access their pool of supporters more likely than selfless givers.
Another strategy to prevent giver burnout can be to change the domain. Instead of giving more to one and the same group of people, expanding the giving to other groups of people can be rewarding for givers. Sprinkling Research shows that people gain more happiness when they chunk the act of giving rather than sprinkle it over time. For instance, it has a greater impact to perform multiple acts of kindness in one day than doing the same amount of giving sprinkled over one week. Selfless givers perform giving after work, whereas otherish givers get recharged during the week to be able to give during the weekend.
The technique of chunking gets adopted by companies too. They slice their weekdays into productive quite time and giving time to help or to seek advice. More research shows that giving during work time only affects productivity when the giver lacks skills of time management.
The hour rule of Volunteering Experiments have shown the best amount of time to spend on volunteering regarding happiness. It seems that people who volunteer more than hours but less than hours are more satisfied than people volunteering outside of these time constraints. The act of volunteering has a lasting impact, because the satisfaction of people goes up one year later.
Is the act of giving itself a flow activity? Companies, who struggle to give their employees time for volunteering, should learn about these benefits. But the act of volunteering has to be meaningful to the employee without being an obligation. Meaningfulness and Happiness All these strategies help otherish givers to keep up their commitment and stamina. By making use of them, they outperform takers, matchers and obviously selfless givers.Adam Grant: "Give and Take" - Talks at Google
Selfless givers use up these reserves, exhausting themselves and often dropping to the bottom of the success ladder. By giving in ways that are energizing rather than exhausting, otherish givers are more likely to rise to the top. For takers, it can be easy to exploit givers as doormats.
How to protect from a taker as a giver? Screening Multiple authors Blink by Malcolm Gladwell, Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman have revealed that the first impression of another person can be very important to distinguish givers from other reciprocity styles.
If you take more time, by listening to a person, you can wait for clues that reveal the person as a taker or giver. Takers are more likely to use first-person pronouns. In addition, they use more time in talking than listening.
They are not listening to your needs. It turns out that takers can be agreeable and givers can be disagreeable. Start out as Giver, Become a Matcher Once you revealed a person as a taker, it makes sense to shift the reciprocity style to a matcher when being a giver.
The strategy is called tit for tat by game theorists: When your counterpart competes, match the behavior by competing too.
This is a wildly effective form of matching that has won many game theory tournaments. Act on behalf of your team, when your boss sets impossible deadlines or expectations. Or act on behalf of the companies best interest when negotiating.
See with whom you can connect the person. It would turn out as a win-win situation for everyone. You can keep giving and the other people create a giving culture too. A rippling effect will evolve and you make the pie bigger to give and take. Embrace Giving in Collaborations The ripple effect when a giver collaborates with a group of people was already mentioned. Knowing about this effect, makes it possible to let everyone in the group act more like givers.
This reduces the risks of giving: The Giving Community Research has shown that when takers and matchers are in a sharing community of givers, they will experience the feeling of oneness. They belong to the sharing community and will act as givers. Even though they might have started the collaboration out of selfish interests. In a sharing community, people develop a feeling a responsibility, while in other communities there is only the atomic transaction without a lasting impact.
People from the same city, with similar preferences or even the same name can experience a feeling of oneness. In general, people like to be reminded of themselves.
For instance, research shows that more people with the name Jack live in Jacksville and more people with the name Georgia live in Georgia. Names can be associated to professions as well. Like someone with the name Dennis is more likely to become a dentist than a person with the name Jack. But seeking for Distinctiveness On the other hand, people want to be unique even though they value common ground.
Marilynn Brewer, a psychologist, calls is optimal distinctiveness. On the other hand, we want to stand out; we search for uniqueness, differentiation, and individuality.
As we navigate the social world, these two motives are often in conflict. The more strongly e affiliate with a group, the greater our risk of losing our sense of uniqueness. The more we work to distinguish ourselves from others, the greater our risk of losing our sense of belongingness. It creates a shared identity and can apply for giving communities too. The Ripple Effect in Communities Research shows that there has to be a critical mass of givers in a sharing community.
When people get reminded continuously of the act of giving, because others do it, they will give too. Takers will adopt the behavior as well.
At least because it might be embarrassing not to give. In an experiment, people where reminded annually of their energy consumption and the average energy consumption of the community. Over time, the takers adopted their behavior and used less energy. In conclusion, it helps to show people how they perform relative to the community.
Reciprocity Rings Too often our environment is designed to be a win-lose contest. It starts in our education, in schools and universities, yet continuous during our professional live.
People become naturally takers because of the competition. Giving becomes a minority and it is a uncommon thing to do. A win-lose contest can poison a company culture. The reciprocity ring is a strategy to disrupt the self-fulfilling prophecy. Reciprocity rings embraces this vulnerability.
People gather and ask for help. They make themselves vulnerable but offer others the opportunity to give. The requests can be surprising and emotional; even among powerful CEOs and managers. You should definitely read the book to hear their stories.
Since there are no transactions in a reciprocity ring, matchers cannot give back directly. But they can give back indirectly to others that leads to a ripple effect. They even enjoy it to give when it is publicly. In the end, I want to ask you: What is your reciprocity style? It becomes a part of their identities. When empathizing with another person, a taker believes she is imagining how the other party is feeling.
But in reality the taker is imagining how the taker would feel in that situation. This is a false, self-centered empathy. Thus narcissists tend to see themselves as righteous and doing nothing wrong, and when others react poorly, narcissists may dismiss the insulted parties as unlikeable rather than assigning blame to the self. Toddlers are given two bowls, one with crackers and another with broccoli. They overwhelmingly personally prefer crackers.
They then watch a researcher express disgust while eating crackers and happiness while eating broccoli. The researcher then asks for food. Over age, some people may naturally incline toward this empathy more than others. Givers tend to actively empathize with the other party. Before giving feedback, comedic writer George Meyer reflects on his past feelings of feeling eviscerated when being rewritten.
As discussed above, matchers and takers have a disadvantage in creating valuable networks — they seek out only people who can benefit them today. This ignores undervalued people who blossom into great success, whom givers help without expectation of return.
The Pygmalion Effect — Self-fulfilling Prophecies of Potential Confounding the potential problem is the Pygmalion effect — a self-fulfilling prophecy where having higher expectations about a person leads to performance increases in that person. This effect has been experimented with in a wide range of professional and educational settings.
In grade school students, bloomers gained ten IQ points more than their peers over 2 years. In the military, high potential trainees do better on expertise tests and weapons evaluations.
In the workplace, new employees whose managers are told of their high promise receive higher performance ratings. The effect is stronger when there are initially low expectations like in problem studentswhen subjects are men, and in the military. To someone of high promise, a teacher sets higher expectations, communicates more warmly, calls to answer more often, gives more advice and feedback, and attributes failure to the task rather than the person.
The student responds to positivity, setting into place a positive feedback loop that leads to a sustained self-fulfilling prophecy.
Best Summary + PDF: Give and Take, by Adam Grant
In contrast, to someone of low promise, a teacher does the inverse: Similarly, this leads to a vicious cycle where the student feels less motivated, and each progressive failure is more evidence of low promise. How do takers, matchers, and givers perform differently in this framework? Takers assume that most people are takers and thus place little trust in other people. When they see someone with high performance, they see this person as a threat, which prevents them from whole-heartedly supporting the person.
Furthermore, takers tend to dismiss low performers as not possibly being able to help the taker. This creates vicious cycles where takers fail to provide encouraging support. Matchers value reciprocity, so when they see someone of high potential, they do provide support in hopes of returned favors later. By default, givers tend to be optimistic and see everyone as bloomers.
All people are diamonds in the rough until proven otherwise. Givers provide encouraging support broadly. Talent Is Overrated — Grit is Important One reason takers and matchers tend to undervalue potential is that they overemphasize current performance and talent.
After all, they want to extract value now. Instead, research has shown that orthogonal character traits like interest and grit make a big difference. Interest drives people to develop skill in the first place. And grit keeps them pushing through setbacks and difficulties. Both character traits can be nurtured by early teachers who are caring and patient.
Teachers who can spark the interest and provide positive experiences set the foundation for developing skill. Then teachers who set high expectations and push them past limits inculcate grit.
Givers tend to be these supportive teachers. If takers know this, will they simply select on grit rather than current performance? Possibly, but they may be at a disadvantage by not creating the environment that nurtures talent growth.
So with limited time, how can givers focus on people with true promise? And how do they avoid the escalation of commitment to investment in a person? Escalation of commitment is a powerful force that pushes people to throw good money after bad. There are four factors here: Ego threat — the biggest factor. Sunk cost fallacy — you weigh your past losses in your decisionmaking, rather than re-initiating a decision. Project completion — a desire to follow through and finish In many cases, escalation of commitment to a bad decision is worse for the group, but better in the short-term for the individual in terms of disguising mistakes and massaging ego.
Takers are more vulnerable to ego threat than givers are. Cutting off a bad investment makes them look foolish and can incur big personal costs like a loss of a promotion. Thus continuing the bad investment allows the taker to continue hiding the prospect of failure.
In contrast, givers are more concerned about achieving the goals of the group than about ego. Thus, givers are more willing to admit personal mistakes and de-escalate commitment.
Givers do this naturally. Furthermore, takers tend to discount constructive feedback that harms their ego. In an experiment, subjects were identified as givers or takers, then made decisions on how to solve problems.
All participants received a random score indicating they were below or above average, then given a suggestion to delegate more.
By avoiding constructive feedback, takers continuously entrench into their former decisions, as doing otherwise would deflate their ego in being correct. Takers want to be the smartest people in the room. In contrast, givers care about the performance of the group and focus more on the organizational consequences of their decisions. Thus, they take in as much data and disconfirming evidence as they can to make better decisions, even at the short term expense of their ego and reputation.
Stu Inman was a basketball scout for the Portland Trail Blazers and is seen as key to building the team that won the championship in As a college coach, he cared about talent development and made room for gritty players even if they lacked talent. As an NBA scout, he fought common wisdom and used psychological analyses to find gritty players, rather than focusing on upfront performance.
Best Summary + PDF: Give and Take, by Adam Grant | Allen Cheng
This led to picks like Bill Walton and Clyde Drexler. They had their share of mistaken picks. But Inman was receptive to negative feedback and to admitting his mistakes.
After making bad picks, other NBA teams tended to play their picks more than they should have, in an effort to prove their ego correct and out of ego-protecting denial that they had made a mistake.
In contrast, the Blazers played their bad picks less than average, thus de-escalating their commitment. In contrast, Michael Jordan, despite being the best known basketball player of all time, was a classic taker on and off the court. While playing, he was known as being egotistical and selfish. He bristled under constructive feedback and was criticized at his Hall of Fame speech for thanking few people and excoriating his doubters.
As an executive for the Washington Wizards, Jordan made a bad first pick in Kwame Brown, who never lived up to potential. When Jordan owned the Charlotte Bobcats, he signed Brown again. The Bobcats gave Brown more minutes than ever, but he struggled to thrive. Jordan kept throwing good money after bad, unable to admit his mistake and stinging under the increasing criticisms about his management.
Powerful communication tries to establish dominance, and takers are attracted to this style. They speak loudly and forcefully, express certainty, promote accomplishments, and have large body language. Picture a military general issuing orders.
Powerless communication tries to build prestige and admiration, and givers are attracted to this style. Picture a warm, supportive teacher. In Give and Take, Adam Grant examines how givers and powerless communicators succeed in four areas: In sum, powerless communication is effective because people are naturally skeptical of intentions, bristle at being ordered around, and have their own egos to protect.
By asking questions and indicating vulnerability, givers become approachable, show reception to new ideas, and learn new information that helps them persuade. Presenting When giving a presentation, revealing vulnerability and humanity make you approachable and get people to empathize with you. In contrast, takers worry that showing vulnerability will limit their ability to gain dominance. Their powerful communication, however, can clash with other people who want to assert dominance, or when the audience is skeptical of your influence, and the message gets lost.
Powerless communication only works, however, if you signal your competence in other ways, such as credentials or the content of your speech. This is the pratfall effect. When presenting to senior military officers, Adam Grant started his presentation with a powerless joke: It turns out givers are the most effective salespeopleshowing higher results across industries like insurance and pharmaceuticals.
Givers want to help their customers solve their problems, and they use powerless communication to achieve it. Adam Grant gives an example of an optician who approached a woman skeptical of buying expensive multifocal glasses. After asking questions about her daily sight problems and her potential use cases, the optician realizes she has a misconception that the glasses can only be used part of the day. He ultimately makes the sale. A giving, powerless approach guides you to making your own conclusions.
I want you to form your own conclusions: I try to walk jurors up to that line, drop them off, and let them make up their own minds.