Relationship and biodiversity lab answers

Relationships and Biodiversity Lab Report Outline REGENTS

relationship and biodiversity lab answers

Relationships and Biodiversity NYSED Lab Review . Base your answer to question 4 on the portion of the mRNA codon chart and information below. New York State Required Labs – Review. Diffusion Through Relationships and Biodiversity . presentation; address final report; answer questions; visual aids. Relationships and Biodiversity, Student Answer Packet, 1 of 6. Name. Period. Period Date. Date __. Structural Evidenee for Relationships. Test 1—Structoral.

Species that are more closely related to Botana curus are more likely to produce the important substance Curol. Three similar plant species that are plentiful X, Y, and Z may be related to Botana curus. You will work as a researcher to: Do not eat or drink anything in the laboratory while doing this laboratory activity.

Record all of your data and answers on these laboratory sheets. You will need to keep them for review before the Regents Examination. Later; you will need to transfer your answers to a separate Student Answer Packet.

Your teacher will use the packet in grading your work, and the school will retain it as evidence of your completion of the laboratory requirement for the Living Environment Regents Examination. Structural Evidence for Relationships Perform the following tests and record your observations in Table I on page 8 of this packet.

Use a hand lens or microscope as needed. Test 1-Structural Characteristics of Plants a. Compare the structural characteristics of the plant samples.

Record your observations in Table 1 see page 8. Test 2-Structural Characteristics of Seeds a. Compare the structural characteristics of the seed samples. Record your observations in Table 1.

Use the lowest magnification on your microscope to examine the slides that show cross sections through stems of Botana curus and Species X, Y, and Z. Compare the arrangement circular or scattered of the bundles of conducting tissue in the specimens. Refer to Figure I.

relationship and biodiversity lab answers

Circular arrangement of bundles Scattered arrangement of bundles Figure 1 b. Based on your data for structural relationships, which species x, Y, or Z would you hypothesize is most likely to produce Curol? Explain how the evidence from your data table supports your hypothesis.

relationship and biodiversity lab answers

You will test your hypothesis by completing additional tests in the second part of this laboratory activity. You must wear safety goggles when performing this part of the activity. Draw a pencil line 2 cm from the bottom of the chromatography paper. Use a clean microtip dropper to transfer two drops of plant extract from Botana curus just above the pencil line as shown in Figure 2. Using a clean dropper each time, repeat the procedure to place drops of the other plant extracts in the appropriate locations on the paper.

Add just enough water to cover the bottom of the cup approximately I cm deep. The water line should NOT be high enough to touch the spots of plant extract on the chromatography paper when the paper is placed in the cup. Fold the chromatography paper and stand it in the cup as shown in Figure 2.

The chromatography paper must be removed from the cup before the water line reaches the pencil labels at the top of the chromatography paper. While the plant extracts are moving up the chromatography paper, go on to Test 5, but keep checking on the progress of the water moving up the paper so that you can remove it at the proper time.

Once the chromatogram is done, record your observations of the colors and relative amounts of pigments in Table I. Clean the microtip droppers thoroughly by rinsing them with water. Carefully pour solutions from the chromatography cup into the waste container. Discard the used chromatography paper. Test 5-Indicator Tests for Enzyme M a.

It is not practical to test a plant directly for Curol. However, if enzyme M is present, a plant may produce Curol. Test the plant extract from Botana curus for the presence of enzyme M. Put one small scoop of indicator powder into one depression of the well tray.

Use a clean microtip dropper to add 5 drops of Botana curus extract to the indicator powder. A fizzing reaction indicates that enzyme M is present.

Repeat the test for enzyme M using the other plant extracts. Record the results of your tests for enzyme M in Table I.

relationship and biodiversity lab answers

Rinse the well tray and blot it dry using a paper towel. Complete the chromatography tests and observations before going on. For this test, you will use the plastic bags containing colored paper strips representing portions of DNA molecules. Simulate this cutting process as follows: Remove one of the colored paper strips from the plastic bag labeled Botana curus. The shaded areas represent where the enzyme would bind to cut the DNA.

Use scissors to cut off all the "white space" above and below the string of letters representing the DNA bases. Also remove the white paper to the left and right of the string of letters. This will enable them to fit better in the spaces provided in Table 2 on page 9.

For this test, you will use the plastic bags containing colored paper strips representing portions of DNA molecules. Simulate this cutting process as follows: Remove one of the colored paper strips from the plastic bag labeled Botana curus. The shaded areas represent where the enzyme would bind to cut the DNA.

Use scissors to cut off all the "white space" above and below the string of letters representing the DNA bases. Also remove the white paper to the left and right of the string of letters. This will enable them to fit better in the spaces provided in Table 2 on page 9.

Now cut the strip between the C and G within each of the shaded enzyme recognition sites.

Relationships and Biodiversity Lab Write up

This will result in several fragments of DNA. Scientists use gel electrophoresis to separate the DNA fragments resulting from this binding and cutting process.

  • Relationships and Biodiversity Lab
  • Relationships and Biodiversity Lab Report Outline REGENTS

In an electrical field, the negatively charged DNA molecules migrate through a gel-like material toward the positively charged pole. The smaller molecules migrate more rapidly through the gel than the larger ones do. Simulate the effect of electrical current on the DNA fragments by counting the number of letters bases in each of the fragments and moving them to the appropriate location on the electrophoresis gel.

Refer to the number of DNA letters indicated along the left side of the gel to detennine the final position for each fragment.

relationship and biodiversity lab answers

Call your teacher over to check your work for Botana Gurusbefore you continue with the DNA from the other species. Mark a horizontal line to indicate the final position of each fragment of Botana GurusDNA on the simulated electrophoresis gel Table 2then record the size on the fragments number of bases in each in Table 1. Mark the final position of the DNA bands for each species on the gel Table 2then record the size of the fragments number of bases in each in Table 1.

Discard the used paper DNA fragments and return all other materials to their original location. The sequences of DNA bases below represent parts of the genes responsible for the production of one type of protein, an enzyme, produced by Botana Gurusand Species X, Y, and Z. Under each DNA sequence, write the complementary messenger RNA base sequences that each of these gene fragments would produce.

Use the universal genetic code table your teacher provides to translate the messenger RNA base sequences into sequences of amino acids in the protein produced by each species. Write the sequences of amino acids under the messenger RNA sequences. State how the amino acid sequence you obtained from the gene fragment for Botana curus compares with the sequences for the other three species.

Summarize your observations of the number of differences in Table 1. Analysis of Results 1.

NYS Relationships and Biodiversity Lab

Using the information in Table 1, identify which plant is most closely related to Botana curus and therefore most likely to produce Curoi. Did the addition of molecular evidence support or refute the hypothesis that you made earlier based on structural evidence only? Which kind of evidence-structural or molecular-is relationships between species? Based on your observations, list three characteristics structural or molecular that all four species have in common. Provide a biological explanation for the common characteristics that these species share.

Scientists frequently use branching tree diagrams to represent graphically the relationships between species. Which branching tree, shown below, best represents the relationships among the four species? Base your answers to questions 8 through 10 on the reading passage below and on your understanding of biology.

The Biodiversity Crisis Plant and animal species are being lost at a rate that is unprecedented in the history of life. Human activities are responsible for much of this biodiversity crisis. Some biologists estimate that within the next century, half of Earth's current species may become extinct. Extinction and the loss of biodiversity occurs when species do not have adaptations that enable them to survive environmental changes.

Human activities such as destruction of natural habitats and pollution are thought to be the major environmentalfactors causing the decline of species, but others are also important. Overhunting, introduction of foreign species that compete with native species, and removal of predators have also played,a significant role in endangering some species. Why should we worry about the loss of biodiversity? We depend on many species for food, clothing,shelter,oxygen, soil fertility-the list goes on and on.

Large-scaleextinctionsof other species may be a warning to us that we are altering the biosphere so rapidlythat our species is threatenedtoo. Biodiversity ensures the availability of a rich variety of genetic material that may lead to future agricultural or medical discoveries having significant value to humankind.

Some species have been used as sources for medicines and other useful products.

Course: Biology

Scientists now use genetic engineering to transfer desirable genes from one species to another. As diversity is lost, potential sources of these genetic materials may be lost with it. Biodiversity also increases the stability of the ecosystem. Every population is linked, directly or indirectly, with many others io an ecosystem. Disruptions in the numbers and types of one species can upset ecosystem stability.

This means that extinction of one species can accelerate the rate of extinction for other species.

relationship and biodiversity lab answers

Endangered species hold medicinal, agricultural, ecological, commercial, and aesthetic value. They must be protected so that future generations can experience their presence and value. Assume that the plant you identified as being closely related to Botana Gurusgrows rapidly, survives in many environments, and produces'Curo!. News reports indicate that Botana Gurusplants may become extinct unless expensive efforts are made to preserve the species.

Members of your research team disagree as to whether or not Botana Gurusshould be saved. State three examples of human activities that could endanger Botana Gurus.