Did Sir Francis Drake have a relationship with Queen Elizabeth I
In November Elizabethan seaman Sir Francis Drake set out at sea Queen Elizabeth I sponsored Drake's voyage to circumnavigate the. Explore ten fascinating facts about Queen Elizabeth's favorite pirate. In , an aging Sir Francis Drake set off on a final voyage to prowl the. Map of Sir Francis Drake's circumnavigation of the globe!! Sir Frances Drake after his knighthood by Queen Elizabeth I for his voyage around the world . Cove, which alone offered a secure relationship with the Indians, and await rescue.
When Drake arrived in New Albion, he had 2 ships and 85 men. He could not return by the Straits of Magellan because the Spanish would be waiting for him so he decided to sail around the world and reach England by that route.
When he arrived at the Moluccas, he had 65 men, so 20 were left behind to found a colony, and continue looking for the Northwest Passage: How the men were selected for this mission will never be known.
Even their names were subsequently lost to memory except for one man: However, it is a fact that some twenty of Drake's men were unaccounted for when he left this coast. No doubt Drake offered "profitable persuasions" such as he had first promised in June.
Most likely, they were instructed to proceed to the junction of the strait with the passage eastward, and then to continue only if the seaway clearly was open. If not, they would have had to return down the coast to their former camp at Whale Cove, which alone offered a secure relationship with the Indians, and await rescue.
There certainly would not have been any thought of them trying to return to England via Magellan's Strait or crossing the Pacific in such small vessels.
But Drake would have assured them that with the great cargo of treasure he was bringing back, the Queen would allow him to return for them if need be, and to fulfill his plan for Nova Albion. The greatest trial for Francis Drake came on the homeward voyage. Somewhere in Indonesia, his ship struck a submerged reef and was absolutely helpless in the vast ocean. Darkness descended, leaving the ship's company in extreme peril.
If the wind and waves grew stronger, she would have been driven farther onto the reef and there would have been no possibility of saving her.
Moreover, the nearest land was six leagues away, and the ship's boat could carry only about twenty men, including the oarsmen.
Four or five trips would have been necessary to ferry everyone ashore, and in the meantime the ship might have broken up. Even if everyone managed to get ashore, with little in the way of arms or provisions they would have been at the mercy of the natives. The next morning they waited for the tide to lift them off, but high water came and went without any effect. Again they looked for someplace to set their anchor, but to no avail. Returning to the ship, Drake called the men together to pray for divine intervention, and Fletcher delivered a sermon and administered communion.
Then Drake set all hands to work lightening the ship.
The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake
Provisions, eight cannons, and three tons of cloves were heaved over the side, and at four o'clock in the afternoon the Golden Hinde suddenly heeled and slid off the reef into deep water. The miracle inspired his men with faith and the rest of the voyage back to England was uneventful. He immediately went to London where the Queen Elizabeth I received him gratefully. They had a very long private conversation, and he related all the details of his incredible journey.
Strict secrecy was however still absolutely necessary. Queen Elizabeth knighting Drake aboard his ship the Golden Hind. Little did the new Sir Francis realize that Elizabeth was secretly married to Robert Dudley and he would never allow her to reinforce the California colony.Punk-Pirat Sir Francis Drake - Sketch History - ZDF
Elizabeth gave this priceless jeweled cup to Sir Francis at his knighthood. His knighting by his grateful Queen was the high tide of Sir Francis Drake's remarkable career. Not until many years later was the true extent of his miraculous journey revealed to the public.
During the Elizabethan age, mariners did not have the GPS so they had to rely on the heavenly bodies: While the practical means of determining one's latitude had been developed, however, there was no corresponding means of determining longitude—one's position east or west of a known point—from a ship at sea.
Theoretically, as Bourne explained in A Regiment for the Sea, one could produce a book of ephemerides in which the moon's distance from the sun or a prominent star, viewed from a particular place, or "prime meridian," at a given hour could be predicted and tabulated, day by day, for several years to come.
A few weeks later September Drake made it to the Pacific, but violent storms destroyed one of the three ships, the Marigold captained by John Thomas in the strait and caused another, the Elizabeth captained by John Wynterto return to England, leaving only the Pelican.
After this passage, the Pelican was pushed south and discovered an island that Drake called Elizabeth Island. Captain Wynter ordered the collection of great amounts of bark — hence the scientific name. The first report of his discovery of an open channel south of Tierra del Fuego was written after the publication of the voyage of Willem Schouten and Jacob le Maire around Cape Horn in Some Spanish ships were captured, and Drake used their more accurate charts. Before reaching the coast of PeruDrake visited Mocha Islandwhere he was seriously injured by hostile Mapuche.
It would come to be called the Cacafuego. Drake gave chase and eventually captured the treasure ship, which proved his most profitable capture. Drake was naturally pleased at his good luck in capturing the galleon, and he showed it by dining with the captured ship's officers and gentleman passengers. He offloaded his captives a short time later, and gave each one gifts appropriate to their rank, as well as a letter of safe conduct.
Nova Albion Main article: New Albion Drake's landing in California, engraving published by Theodor de Bry After looting the Cacafuego, Drake turned north, hoping to meet another Spanish treasure ship coming south on its return from Manila to Acapulco.
Although he failed to find a treasure ship, Drake reputedly sailed as far north as the 38th parallel, landing on the coast of California on 17 June He found a good port, landed, repaired and restocked his vessels, then stayed for a time, keeping friendly relations with the Coast Miwok natives.
Assertions that he left some of his men behind as an embryo "colony" are founded on the reduced number who were with him in the Moluccas.
All first-hand records from the voyage, including logs, paintings and charts, were lost when Whitehall Palace burned in A bronze plaque inscribed with Drake's claim to the new lands — Drake's Plate of Brass — fitting the description in his account, was discovered in Marin CountyCalifornia but was later declared a hoax. Across the Pacific and around Africa Drake left the Pacific coast, heading southwest to catch the winds that would carry his ship across the Pacific, and a few months later reached the Moluccasa group of islands in the western Pacific, in eastern modern-day Indonesia.
While there, Golden Hind became caught on a reef and was almost lost. After the sailors waited three days for convenient tides and had dumped cargo, they freed the barque. Befriending a sultan king of the Moluccas, Drake and his men became involved in some intrigues with the Portuguese there. He made multiple stops on his way toward the tip of Africa, eventually rounded the Cape of Good Hopeand reached Sierra Leone by 22 July The Queen's half-share of the cargo surpassed the rest of the crown's income for that entire year.
Drake was hailed as the first Englishman to circumnavigate the Earth and the second such voyage arriving with at least one ship intact, after Elcano 's in Drake presented the Queen with a jewel token commemorating the circumnavigation. Taken as a prize off the Pacific coast of Mexico, it was made of enamelled gold and bore an African diamond and a ship with an ebony hull.
On one side is a state portrait of Elizabeth by the miniaturist Nicholas Hilliardon the other a sardonyx cameo of double portrait busts, a regal woman and an African male.
The "Drake Jewel", as it is known today, is a rare documented survivor among sixteenth-century jewels; it is conserved at the Victoria and Albert MuseumLondon. Bronze plaque by Joseph Boehm, base of Drake statue, Tavistock. Sir Francis Drake with his new heraldic achievementwith motto: Sic Parvis Magna, translated literally: Argent, a wyvern wings displayed and tail nowed gules,  and the crest, a dexter arm Proper grasping a battle axe Sable, headed Argent.
The head of that family, also a distinguished sailor, Sir Bernard Drake d. Sable a fess wavy between two pole-stars [Arctic and Antarctic] argent; and for his crest, a ship on a globe under ruff, held by a cable with a hand out of the clouds; over it this motto, Auxilio Divino; underneath, Sic Parvis Magna; in the rigging whereof is hung up by the heels a wivern, gules, which was the arms of Sir Bernard Drake.
The full achievement is depicted in the form of a large coloured plaster overmantel in the Lifetimes Gallery at Buckland Abbey  Nevertheless, Drake continued to quarter his new arms with the wyvern gules.
Francis Drake - Wikipedia
Argent, a wyvern wings displayed and tail nowed gules. Often abroad, there is little evidence to suggest he was active in Westminster, despite being a member of parliament on three occasions. After returning from his voyage of circumnavigation, Drake became the Mayor of Plymouthin September He did not actively participate at this point, and on 17 February he was granted leave of absence "for certain his necessary business in the service of her Majesty".
He spent the time covered by the next two parliamentary terms engaged in other duties and an expedition to Portugal. He lived there for fifteen years, until his final voyage, and it remained in his family for several generations. Buckland Abbey is now in the care of the National Trust and a number of mementos of his life are displayed there. An expedition left Plymouth in September with Drake in command of twenty-one ships with 1, soldiers under Christopher Carleill.
He first attacked Vigo in Spain and held the place for two weeks ransoming supplies. He then plundered Santiago in the Cape Verde islands after which the fleet then sailed across the Atlantic, sacked the port of Santo Domingoand captured the city of Cartagena de Indias in present-day Colombia. After the raids he then went on to find Sir Walter Raleigh 's settlement much further north at Roanoke which he replenished and also took back with him all of the original colonists before Sir Richard Greynvile arrived with supplies and more colonists.
He finally reached England on 22 July, when he sailed into Portsmouth, England to a hero's welcome. Singeing the King of Spain's Beard In another pre-emptive strike, Drake "singed the beard of the King of Spain" in by sailing a fleet into Cadiz and also Corunnatwo of Spain's main ports, and occupied the harbours. He destroyed 37 naval and merchant ships. The attack delayed the Spanish invasion by a year.
10 Things You May Not Know About Francis Drake
Vincentintercepting and destroying ships on the Spanish supply lines. Drake was vice admiral in command of the English fleet under Lord Howard of Effinghamwhen it overcame the Spanish Armada that was attempting to invade England in The Spanish ship was known to be carrying substantial funds to pay the Spanish Army in the Low Countries. Drake's ship had been leading the English pursuit of the Armada by means of a lantern. By extinguishing this for the capture, Drake put the fleet into disarray overnight.
On the night of 29 July, along with Howard, Drake organised fire-shipscausing the majority of the Spanish captains to break formation and sail out of Calais into the open sea. The next day, Drake was present at the Battle of Gravelines. The most famous but probably apocryphal anecdote about Drake relates that, prior to the battle, he was playing a game of bowls on Plymouth Hoe.
On being warned of the approach of the Spanish fleet, Drake is said to have remarked that there was plenty of time to finish the game and still beat the Spaniards.
There is no known eyewitness account of this incident and the earliest retelling of it was printed 37 years later. Drake—Norris Expedition Main article: Drake's seafaring career continued into his mid-fifties. Inhe failed to conquer the port of Las Palmas, and following a disastrous campaign against Spanish America, where he suffered a number of defeats, he unsuccessfully attacked San Juan de Puerto Rico, eventually losing the Battle of San Juan.
The Spanish gunners from El Morro Castle shot a cannonball through the cabin of Drake's flagship, but he survived. He attempted to attack San Juan again, but a few weeks later, in Januaryhe died aged about 56 of dysenterya common disease in the tropics at the time, while anchored off the coast of PortobeloPanamawhere some Spanish treasure ships had sought shelter.
Following his death, the English fleet withdrew. He was buried at sea in a sealed lead-lined coffin, near Portobelo, a few miles off the coastline. It is supposed that his final resting place is near the wrecks of two British ships, the Elizabeth and the Delight, scuttled in Portobelo Bay.
Divers continue to search for the coffin. Cultural impact This portrait, circamay have been copied from Hilliard's miniature —note the similar shirt—and the somewhat oddly-proportioned body, added by an artist who did not have access to Drake.
National Portrait Gallery, London.