Shia–Sunni relations - Wikipedia
Sunni and Shia muslims: Islam's 1,year-old divide explained consensus, or whether only Mohammed's blood relations should reign. BRIGITTE MARÉCHAL and SAMI ZENMI. (Editors). The Dynamics of Sunni-Shia. Relationships. Doctrine, Transnationalism, Intellectuals and the Media. HURST. Therefore, in the history of Sunni-Shia relations, there are no parallels to the Thirty Years War between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. The only events.
First, through the Asharis tribe [ clarification needed ] at the end of the 7th and during the 8th century. Second through the pupils of Sabzevar, and especially those of Al-Shaykh Al-Mufidwho were from Rey and Sabzawar and resided in those cities. Third, through the school of Hillah under the leadership of Al-Hilli and his son Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqin.Can sunni marry shia Sheikh Dr Muhammad Salah
Fourth, through the scholars of Jabal Amel residing in that region, or in Iraq, during the 16th and 17th centuries who later migrated to Iran. When the Ismailis divided into two sects, Nizaris established their base in northern Persia.
Hassan-i Sabbah conquered fortresses and captured Alamut in Nizaris used this fortress until the Mongols finally seized and destroyed it in After the Mongols and the fall of the Abbasids, the Sunni Ulama suffered greatly. In addition to the destruction of the caliphate there was no official Sunni school of law. Many libraries and madrasahs were destroyed and Sunni scholars migrated to other Islamic areas such as Anatolia and Egypt. In contrast, most Shia were largely unaffected as their center was not in Iran at this time.
Sunnis and Shia: Islam's ancient schism - BBC News
For the first time, the Shia could openly convert other Muslims to their movement. Several local Shia dynasties like the Marashi and Sarbadars were established during this time. In Egypt the Fatimid government ruled.
After the Mongol invasion Shiims and Sufism once again formed a close association in many ways. Some of the Ismailis whose power had broken by the Mongols, went underground and appeared later within Sufi orders or as new branches of already existing orders. In Twelve-Imam Shiism, from the 13th to the 16th century, Sufism began to grow within official Shiite circles.
More important in the long run than these sects were the Sufi orders which spread in Persia at this time and aided in the preparing the ground for the Shiite movement of Safavids. Two of these orders are of particular significance in this question of the relation of Shiism and Sufism: The Nimatullahi order and Nurbakhshi order.
He thus had to enforce official Shiism violently, putting to death those who opposed him.
Under this pressure, Safavid subjects either converted or pretended to convert, but it is safe to say that the majority of the population was probably genuinely Shia by the end of the Safavid period in the 18th century, and most Iranians today are Shia, although there is still a Sunni minority. By the side of the immigration of scholars, Shi'i works and writings were also brought to Iran from Arabic-speaking lands, and they performed an important role in the religious development of Iran In fact, since the time of the leadership of Shaykh Mufid and Shaykh Tusi, Iraq had a central academic position for Shi'ism.
This central position was transferred to Iran during the Safavid era for two-and-a-half centuries, after which it partly returned to Najaf.
Before the Safavid era Shi'i manuscripts were mainly written in Iraq, with the establishment of the Safavid rule these manuscripts were transferred to Iran. This gap continued until the 20th century. The declaration of Shi'ism as the state religion of the realm by Shah Ismail — Tabriz central mosque.
Levant[ edit ] Rashid ad-Din Sinan the Grand Master of the Ismaili Shia at Masyaf successfully deterred Saladinnot to assault the minor territories under the control of their sect. Shias claim that despite these advances, many Shias in Syria continued to be killed during this period for their faith. There were many between and These clashes revolved around the public cursing of the first three caliphs by Shias and the praising of them by Sunnis.
To put a stop to the violence, public demonstrations were banned in on the three most sensitive days: AshuraChehlum and Ali's death on 21 Ramadan. Intercommunal violence resurfaced in —36 and again in when many thousands of Sunni and Shias defied the ban on public demonstrations and took to the streets.
History records 10 such Taarajs also known as Taraj-e-Shia between the 15th and 19th centuries in,,during which the Shia habitations were plundered, people slaughtered, libraries burnt and their sacred sites desecrated.
Shias in Kashmir in subsequent years had to pass through the most atrocious period of their history. Iran—Saudi Arabia proxy conflict In addition to Iran, Iraq has emerged as a major Shia government when the Twelvers achieved political dominance in under American occupation.
The two communities have often remained separate, mingling regularly only during the Hajj pilgrimage in Mecca. In some countries like Iraq, Syria, Kuwait and Bahrain, communities have mingled and intermarried. Abu Bakr became the first caliph and Ali became the fourth caliph. Aisha was defeated, but the roots of division were deepened. For the Shias, this battle, known as the Battle of Karbala, holds enormous historical and religious significance.
For the Shia community, Hussein became a martyr.
Sunnis and Shia: Islam's ancient schism
The day of the battle is commemorated every year on the Day of Ashura. Leadership disagreements Over time, Islam continued to expand and develop into evermore complex and overlapping societies that spanned from Europe to sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa to Asia. This development demanded more codified forms of religious and political leadership. Sunnis and Shias adopted different approaches to these issues.
The Dynamics of Sunni-Shia Relationships | Hurst Publishers
Sunni Muslims trusted the secular leadership of the caliphs during the Ummayad based in Damascus from A. Their theological foundations came from the four religious schools of Islamic jurisprudence that emerged over the seventh and eighth centuries.
To this day, these schools help Sunni Muslims decide on issues such as worship, criminal law, gender and family, banking and finance, and even bioethical and environmental concerns. Today, Sunnis comprise about percent of the global Muslim population. In the absence of the leadership of direct descendants, Shias appoint representatives to rule in their place often called ayatollahs. Shias are a minority of the global Muslim population, although they have strong communities in Iraq, Pakistan, Albania, Yemen, Lebanon and Iran.
There are also different sects within Shia Islam. Differences masked during Hajj Other disputes that continue to exacerbate the divide include issues of theology, practice and geopolitics. Hadith are the reports of the words and deeds of the prophet and considered an authoritative source of revelation, second only to the Quran. They provide a biographical sketch of the prophet, context to Quranic verses, and are used by Muslims in the application of Islamic law to daily life.