Biggs () describes this as the 'alignment' of teaching, learning activities, and assessment the relationship between university education and core or transferable skills. Tuning identified indicative generic competences or transferable skills and . To complete the cycle of learning one must also look at how students'. Identifying needs – the teacher or trainer is responsible for identifying the needs of the user, and the relevant organisation. Marriage and civil partnership The teaching, learning and assessment cycle can be used to identify and help to. Task: Click on the Teaching/Training Cycle Powerpoint presentation before Responsibilities: It is important that you identify the needs of your learners so you . too friendly with their learners although a teacher/student relationship should.
The PTLC process begins by introducing staff to the process, carving out sufficient time for teachers to meet during the school day, and pulling together the print resources necessary to support the work student achievement data, state standards, curriculum documents. Teacher teams made up of 3—8 grade-level or content-area teachers must be established. Teams begin by examining student achievement data and selecting a state standard or a set of standards to focus on for the first cycle.
Depending on the level of comfort teachers have with student achievement data or with taking time to really study the state standards, some professional development may be necessary before beginning. One of the advantages of introducing the PTLC process is that it provides a way to focus professional development while allowing for individual differences. The PTLC is a professional development model in itself, but it also requires some targeted professional development for the teachers who are using it.
Teachers need to be up-to-date on how to analyze student achievement data. Providing professional development sessions in each of these areas creates a purpose for later professional development to support the PTLC see figure below. The Professional Teaching and Learning Cycle Prior to beginning the cycle, a team of teachers examines student achievement data from state achievement tests or local benchmark tests aligned to the state standards and selects standards on which to focus.
Study Teachers work in collaborative planning teams grade-level, vertical, or departmental to critically examine and discuss the learning expectations from the selected state standards. Teachers working collaboratively develop a common understanding of the following: The concepts and skills students need to meet the expectations in the standards How the standards for a grade or course are assessed on state and local tests How the standards fit within a scope and sequence of the district curriculum Phase II: Select Collaborative planning teams research and select instructional strategies and resources for enhancing learning as described in the standards.
Working collaboratively, teachers identify effective research-based strategies and appropriate resources that will be used to support learning that is aligned to the standards; and agree on appropriate assessment techniques that will be used to provide evidence of student learning. Plan Collaborative planning teams work together to formally plan a lesson incorporating the selected strategies and agree on the type of student work each teacher will take into the Analyze phase of the PTLC to reveal evidence of student learning.
Working collaboratively, teachers develop a common formal plan outlining the lesson objectives relevant to the standardsthe materials to be used, the procedures, the time frame for the lesson, and the activities in which students will be engaged; and decide what evidence of student learning will be collected during the implementation.
Implement Teachers teach the planned lesson, make note of implementation successes and challenges, and gather the agreed-upon evidence of student learning. Working collaboratively, teachers deliver the lesson as planned in the specified time period; record results, noting where students struggled and where instruction did not achieve expected outcomes; and collect the agreed-upon evidence of student learning to take back to the collaborative planning team.Ann Gravells (1) The Teaching, Learning and Assessment Cycle Part 1 - Identifying Needs
Analyze Teachers gather again in collaborative teams to examine student work and discuss student understanding of the standards. Working collaboratively, teachers revisit and familiarize themselves with the standards before analyzing student work; analyze a sampling of student work for evidence of student learning; discuss whether students have met the expectations outlined in the standards and make inferences about the strengths, weaknesses, and implications of instruction; and identify what students know and what skills need to be strengthened in future lessons.
Adjust Collaborative teams reflect on the results of analyzing student work. Teachers discuss alternative instructional strategies or modifications to the original instructional strategy that may be better suited to promoting student learning. Working collaboratively, teachers reflect on their common and disparate teaching experiences; consider and identify alternative instructional strategies for future instruction; refine and improve the lesson; and determine when the instructional modifications will take place, what can be built into subsequent lessons, and what needs an additional targeted lesson.
Free Education essays
The PTLC process itself is not revolutionary, but its structure provides some clear direction for teachers as they begin to work together to improve instruction. Introducing and initiating the structure of the PTLC, however, is not enough to ensure that teachers use the process in a way that improves their classroom instruction and student achievement.
Click the image for a larger version of the diagram. During a site visit to a high school, I watched in amazement as a group of algebra teachers who met on their own time worked together to figure out how to teach a particular math concept well.
They had developed their own Web site where they posted lesson plans they could each follow and had developed some common assessments.
Two novice teachers were in the group, and I can only imagine the learning that was taking place, not to mention the modeling of what it means to be a professional. During another site visit, I watched as teachers who had been provided with 2 days of professional development on PLCs met to collaborate on teaching their students to develop pre-reading skills. The conversation almost immediately turned to statements about individual students, general comments about parents, and complaints about the expectations being placed on them by administrators.
The one area they were in unanimous agreement about was that they would be better off working in their own classrooms in isolation. Leaders must create a climate that promotes open, trusting relationships. What made the difference between these two situations?
It all came down to leadership—not only the leadership of the principal and district personnel, but also that of teacher leaders with responsibility for creating the conditions that help PLCs thrive—and that are necessary for the PTLC to succeed. Researchers focusing on implementation have identified six key leadership behaviors, discussed below Hord,to support successful implementation of the PTLC.
Teaching as inquiry
Create an atmosphere and context for change The conditions in which teachers are working can be the difference between the successful implementation of the PTLC resulting in improved student learning or its inclusion in the vast burial ground of educational reform ideas.
Sharing what they know about the standards and about instruction is risky business. If they know more than their colleagues, they risk being isolated as know-it-alls, and if the know little, they risk exposing their ignorance. Either scenario results in stifled meetings that soon lead to frustration with the process and eventual anger with those who initiated the change.
Leaders must help create a safe and orderly environment in the school. They must create a climate that promotes open, trusting relationships and collaboration among all staff members Tschannen-Moran, Leaders hold high expectations for staff and students and pay attention to the concerns of teachers and students alike while holding everyone accountable for results.
Finally, they model the behaviors they want to see in others, like attending professional development sessions and PTLC meetings to provide encouragement and support.
Develop and communicate a shared vision for change When everyone in the school shares a sense of urgency about the need for improvement, there is greater likelihood of being able to have teachers implement the PTLC. Teachers use this new information to decide what to do next to ensure continued improvement in student achievement and in their own practice. Although teachers can work in this way independently, it is more effective when they support one another in their inquiries.
We all have basic beliefs and assumptions that guide our thinking and behaviour but of which we may be unaware. We need other people to provide us with different perspectives and to share their ideas, knowledge, and experiences.
Approaches to teaching, learning and assessment in competences based degree programmes
What does the literature say? Australian educator Alan Reid tells us that all educators need to be: That is, educators are understood as people who learn from teaching rather than as people who have finished learning how to teach. You can find resources to spark discussion about these and other related ideas on The New Zealand Curriculum Online.
The cycle is discussed in section 2. Quality Teaching for Diverse Students in Schooling: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration [BES] emphasises the importance of focusing on student outcomes and using both research evidence and assessment information to improve teaching and learning.
It stresses the importance of making links between the cultural contexts children experience at home and those they experience at school. Teacher Professional Learning and Development: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration [BES] confirms what many teachers had always suspected — that teacher learning is of crucial importance to student learning.
It describes the kinds of professional learning opportunities for teachers that make a real difference to student outcomes.
This was a hard lesson to learn and accept. This journey has changed my thinking about teaching and learning. Most importantly, I have had to question why and how I do things in my classroom. My teaching is now based on a better understanding of social studies and has become more conceptually focused. In order to utilise family stories effectively as a resource, I have begun to develop a community of learners where reciprocal teaching, strong student—teacher relationships, and quality dialogue have become important parts of the learning environment.
The teacher uses all available information to determine what their students have already learned and what they need to learn next. Ministry of Education, b, page 35 The key question for the focusing inquiry is: What is important and therefore worth spending time ongiven where my students are at? During their focusing inquiries, they each began to draft an inquiry question that related to a particular issue of concern or interest in their class.
They also selected a group of students to focus on and a set of outcomes that they wanted them to achieve. Focusing on a small group made it much easier for the teachers to evaluate the impact of the changes they made to their practice. The teachers gathered data to find out how their students were doing in relation to the outcomes they had prioritised. They sought this data from a wide variety of sources, including student achievement records, observations, audio and video recordings, interviews, questionnaires, and standardised assessment tools.
When the teachers analysed their baseline data, their focus was not just on their students but also on how they themselves had contributed to the current patterns of student achievement and what it was they might need to learn in order to help their students do better. Helen Timperley has derived ten key principles from the best evidence synthesis of research on teacher professional learning and development.
A number of New Zealand educational texts stress the critical role of teachers and school leaders in using inquiry to solve instructional problems and improve student achievement. The latter argue that: The quality of information improves when everyone is open to the possibility that what they had previously taken for granted may not stand up to scrutiny. Teachers who are skilled in processes of inquiry can detect weaknesses in their own thinking about practice and help others to do the same.
One teacher began by carefully observing his students and reflecting on what he saw. Some students are reluctant to contribute to discussions, due to more dominant personalities monopolising discussions. Other students often avoid paying attention to tasks, and the subject matter can tend to take different directions. Opportunities to share mathematical ideas are limited due to the barriers stated above. Therefore, the major question arising from these experiences is: They generally have difficulties in word recognition, sentence and paragraph comprehension, word meanings, language of advertising, and understanding styles of writing.
The Ministry of Education provides many websites and other resources to help teachers and school leaders understand these expectations. These resources include The New Zealand Curriculum and Te Marautanga o Aotearoa, the various teacher handbooks, and the many different assessment tools. It should be remembered, however, that students start at different points and progress at different rates, so when achievement is being interpreted, rate of progress needs to be considered as well as achievement against a particular standard.
Return to top The teaching inquiry In this teaching inquiry, the teacher uses evidence from research and from their own past practice and that of colleagues to plan teaching and learning opportunities aimed at achieving the outcomes prioritised in the focusing inquiry. Ministry of Education, b, page 35 The key question for the teaching inquiry is: What strategies evidence-based are most likely to help my students learn what they need to learn?
They then moved to considering what was known about effective pedagogy in their particular learning areas and how that related to cultural responsiveness.