Wenn der Konsum an Bedeutung verliert, steigt die Zahl der . Uhr Blickle Kino im 21er Haus In englischer Sprache. 8 »Flirting with Strangers. In zahlreichen Katalog- und Buchbeiträgen beschäftigt sich. btcmu.info btcmu.info btcmu.info .pdf btcmu.info Pracht-Werke-- btcmu.info Kommunalismus--Bd In the catalog of Mammen s work, it appears simply as Berliner Café. . different looks and attitudes to experiment with androgyny, to be hyperfeminine, to be flirtatious, or to appear cool and detached. . P See Peter Blickle: Heimat. cities occurs in the poem Dies zu deuten bin erbötig [ This to interpret, I am prepared ].
Blackwell Pp David Harvey: The Condition of Postmodernity. This period culminated in World War I, during which the world s spaces were deterritorialized, stripped of their preceding significations, and then reterritorialized according to the convenience of colonial and imperial administration.
The dramatic spectacles of the sort the Nazis organized certainly brought space alive and managed to appeal to a deep mythology of place, symbolizing community, but community of a most reactionary sort Ibid. P Harvey relies here on the work by Carl Schorske.
We expand on this bifurcation between Anglo-American and German versions of the spatial turn more in depth below, referring to the work of Doris Bachmann-Medick. Harvey locates the most recent turning point for the nexus of the spacetime compression in the ss, the moment of what he calls postmodernity, created by flexible accumulation, accelerations in turnover times in production, exchange, and consumption, satellite communications systems, and [g]eographical mobility and decentralization, all of which lead to the development of a global urban system, on the one hand, and the central paradox of space and place under globalization, on the other.
Soja s work Thirdspace constitutes another major attempt to theorize the spatial dimension of postmodernity. Soja relies on Lefebvre and Michel Foucault precisely because of their emphasis on the relationship between space, knowledge, and power.
Closest to Lefebvre, but diametrically opposed to Giddens, Soja takes a radical postmodern perspective, which includes the deconstruction and strategic reconstitution of conventional modernist epistemologies. Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Read-And-Imagined Places he advocates for what he calls critical thirding to exceed the conflict between spatiality of human life and historicality and sociality, between radicalized modernity and an understanding of postmodernity as anti-modernity, between history and geography, male and female, space and place.
Soja s Thirdspace is an idealization intended to integrate subjectivity and objectivity, the abstract and the concrete, the real and the imagined, the knowable and the unimaginable, the repetitive and the differential, structure and agency, mind and body, consciousness and the unconscious, the disciplined and the transdisciplinary, everyday life and unending history, which he intriguingly takes from Lefebvre s discussion of Borges s The Aleph, itself a literary construction.
A central but long ignored aspect of the social imaginary in these recent theories of space is gender. Much of the now influential feminist work associated with the spatial turn is indebted to Gillian Rose s groundbreaking book Feminism and Geography, which accused geography of a particularly strong investment in masculinist ideology: Geography is masculinist she declares in succinctly summarizing the condition of her discipline.
Women, the City and Modernity, Deborah L. Her argument has a social dimension, in that she argues that [b]y the late nineteenth century, women s access to the 35 Ibid.
The Limits of Geographical Knowledge. University of Minnesota Press P Ibid. Women, the City and Modernity. Oxford University Press Anke Gleber: Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture. University of California Press Pp 18 18 metropolis was expanding, both in terms of leisure and employment, which was integral for the emancipation of women.
She complicates and refines Giddens and Harvey s approaches by criticizing the gendering of binaries defined by opposites. Thus, in the time-space distanciation time is aligned with history, progress, civilization, politics and transcendence, all of which are coded as masculine, whereas space and its imaginary connection to stasis, passivity and depoliticization, are associated with femininity. While many scholars regard the assault on place by global flows as symptomatic of the destructive impulses of late capitalism, Massey argues that place was never as homogenous or homogenously positive if one regards it from the perspective of, for the most prominent example in her work, women.
Her sensitivity to the gendered resonances of spaces like home and place allows her to brush against the grain of much recent thinking of the anti-place trajectory of modernity. As the volume makes clear repeatedly and in myriad contexts, this wide range of scholars and theorists engage with many sorts of spatial turns across assorted disciplines.
While the volume The Spatial Turn: Interdisciplinary Perspectives brings together essays that survey the genealogy and effects of the spatial turn in disciplines, periods, and geographical regions from anthropology to religion, from the seventeenth century to now, and from 41 Deborah L. Oxford University Press P Ibid. Space, Place, and Gender. University of Minnesota Press Pp Ibid.
She concludes that National Socialism s emphasis on space in their racist and expansive politics interrupted the integration of history and geography in Germany. This turn resulted from the intellectual influence of a transnational spatial turn and the end of the Cold War, with its aligned spatio-political blocks.
This volume s sections Mapping Spaces, Spaces of the Urban, Spaces of Encounter, and Visualized Space reflect four different configurations, in the context of which spatial analysis has yielded much insight. Each section in itself is organized chronologically The Spatial Turn: Im Raume lesen wir die Zeit.
Pp 20 20 to reflect the volume s deliberate approach to space within a historical framework. Nevertheless, the dialogic echoes across different time periods and different sections are striking. For example, Spatial Turns does not include a separate section on gender or a feminist version of the spatial turn. Instead, feminist understandings of the central categories space, place, and mobility explicitly underwrite the arguments of several essays in all sections.
Spatial Turns first section Mapping Spaces comprises essays about how media, especially literature, depict space and engage with other media that produce space in different, but mutually illuminating ways.
As in much of the volume, the section combines analyses of works conventionally central to German Studies such as pieces on Goethe and Johnson with the spatial aspects of less studied objects like city-guides and recent best- sellers. In his Mapping Vision: Goethe, Cartography, and the Novel, Andrew Piper explores the relationship between the literature of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and the invention of the atlas, a relationship that reveals surprising confluences between aesthetizication, social mediation, and spatial measurement.
His essay thus not only illustrates these processes but also adds a layer of reflexivity that most social theories of space neglect. The Geography of Prostitution and Female Sexuality in Curt Moreck s Erotic Travel Guide analyzes the function of gender and sexuality in sexual guides about Berlin in the s, an analysis that opens up new perspectives on the complex relationship between space, place, and gender in modernity. In her Mapping a Human Geography: Similarly taking up spatially oriented literature, emphasized this time in a contemporary novel, Katharina Gerstenberger s essay on Daniel Kehlmann s Vermessung der Welt [Measuring the World, ] analyzes a contemporary reworking of nineteenth-century conflicts between space and time, as well as between geography and history portraying transnational connections from a contemporary perspective.
The volume s second section Spaces of the Urban takes up urban space, which, at least since the work of Ernst Simmel, Walter Benjamin, and Siegfried Kracauer, has played a central role in comprehending spatial configurations of Europe, particularly as they intersect processes of modernity itself. Cultural Mediations of the City in Eighteenth- Century German Women s Writing suggests that women s representations of urban space in eighteenth-century literature offer a different perspective 21 on the private-public divide than that reflected by social history.
Gerhart Hauptmann s Social- Spatial Dramas, Amy Holzapfel offers what she calls a spatial-social interpretation of Hauptmann s social dramas, one that explores their negotiations of spaces from the rural farmlands of Silesia to the urban capital of Berlin, a negotiation Holzapfel argues anticipates the much later topographies of the postmodern German stage.
Eric Jarosinski s Urban Mediations: Two essays then consider the later trajectory and fate of urban space in the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
Spatial Turns. Space, Place, and Mobility in German Literary and Visual Culture - PDF
Bastian Heinsohn s Protesting against the New Berlin: The Local as Counterspace in Recent Berlin Literature explores the deliberate construction of neighborhoods within the modern, mobile metropolis in contemporary German novels, which repeatedly offer these emphatically local spaces as counter discourse to globally minded planning, as theorized by scholars like Neil Smith and Saskia Sassen. Die neue Kunst Ruinen zu bauen, and Suite Havana analyzes the cinematic portrayal of urban ruins in two films that take place in Havana and the globalized exchange of cinematic images between Berlin and Havana.
Her essay deftly illustrates what Giddens calls the complex relations between local involvements circumstances of copresence and interaction across distance the connections of presence and absence. In that context, the essays engage with different kinds of spatial metaphors and descriptions in narratives of national and ethnic encounters. The next two essays extend Hwang s investigation of Jewishness as it both constitutes and transcends what is imagined to be at different historical moments German space.
Mapping Gertrud Kolmar s Poetic Imagination suggests that Gertrud Kolmar s poetry unfolds a particularly political topography to engage and critique National Socialism.
Kolmar s poetic spaces of landscape and topographical tropes suggest a lens through which to read what Daffner regards as subtle spatial problematizations of Jewish cultural identity.
Like Soja, Schopflocher understands spatiality as a primary mode of interpretation and challenges binaristic modes of thinking that assume stable boundaries between privileged and marginalized identities. The last two essays of the section consider other ethnic minorities as they grew and continue to grow as culturally significant and creative presences within and as German culture. Silke Schade s Rewriting Home and Migration: Barbara Kosta s Transcultural Space and Music: The Sound of Istanbul discusses a film that traces cinematically the musical processes that create the transcultural and heteroglossic space of Istanbul.
Spatial Turns engages primarily with literary and theoretical representations, but, in its final section Visualized Space, the volume also takes up visual depictions of space and aims to demonstrate how spatially informed and inflected analyses can augment the burgeoning fields of visual studies. Miriam Paeslack s Topography and the Subject: Berlin in Post-Wall Photography investigates Berlin as it is created and transformed through the artistic process of photography.
The next three essays consider the intersection of spatial turns and German cinema.
The Paradoxical Effect of Praise and Blame: Age-Related Differences
Steven Jacobs s Panoptic Paranoia and Phantasmagoria: Fritz 23 Lang s Nocturnal City analyzes the role that the city at night has played in the celebrated work of Fritz Lang. In his essay, Jaimey Fisher considers the intersection of gender and globalization in the award-winning and much discussed documentary Prinzessinnenbad [The Pool of Princesses]. Elaborating on Doreen Massey s theories of places as contested zones of multiple identities, historical dynamics, and the unfolding dialectics of inside and outside, Fisher examines the genre of the so-called new documentary in a German context.
Spatial Turns concludes by querying the intersection of the theories discussed above and the so-called new media of the internet and other information technologies. Todd Presner s Digital Geographies: Berlin in the Ages of New Media, explores the complex ways in which city spaces, particularly Berlin, have been remediated in the contemporary world of interfaced, hypermedia technologies and asks what these technologies may offer for extending and reworking some of the key concepts of cultural criticism and aesthetic theory that emerged in the Weimar Period.
By arching from more canonical elements of German Studies like Goethe s work to new media representation of German cities in Google mapsthe present volume attempts to trace space in its myriad inflections and across a history that is increasingly understood, mediated, and configured spatially. Goethe, Cartography, and the Novel In the first half of the nineteenth century, geological maps, periodicals, and atlases came to occupy a key position within the market for printed material. In the work of figures like Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Buch, Carl Ritter, Adolf Stieler, and Heinrich Berghaus, the principle project of geo-graphy the relationship of writing to space had assumed renewed cultural urgency.
This essay explores how the printed form of the map worked in concert with the novel to reorient readers envisioning of space and of themselves. Goethe s late novels and a number of cartographical projects from this period reveal how maps and novels participated in a larger bibliographic universe to create a new sense of space and self according to the principles of stratification, discretization, and relationality.
Whereas early modern cartography s grid had stood for a scientific paradigm in which the observer s static vision was controlled by the lines on the page, divorcing it from any corporeal intimacy with the space projected, the grid for Goethe had become the preeminent sign of potentiality, of an imaginative, embodied, and relational vision of space.
History will have to assume, whether explicitly or not, a geographical element.
- Spatial Turns. Space, Place, and Mobility in German Literary and Visual Culture
Carl Ritter Cartographic Visions In the early summer ofthere appeared on the German book market a publication entitled, Teutschland geognostisch geologisch dargestellt, mit Charten und Durchschnittszeichnungen, welche einen geognostischen Atlas bilden. Eine Zeitschrift [Germany geognostically geologically represented, with Maps and Landscape Views, which comprise a geognostic Atlas.
A Periodical], which was edited by Christian Keferstein and dedicated to Goethe. Accompanied by a series of maps illuminated or colored by Keferstein and based on a color scheme designed by Goethe, the periodical was part of a larger tide of geological maps, periodicals, and atlases that were fast occupying an important position within the market for printed material in the first half of the nineteenth century.
Indeed, Keferstein s publisher, the Landes- Industrie-Comptoir in Weimar, which had been founded by Friedrich Justin Bertuch in and had later given birth to the Geographisches Institut inhad become one of the major European centers of scientific, and above all cartographic, publication at the turn of the nineteenth century.
Along with Justus Perthes shop in Gotha, such publishing houses were the means through which German mapmaking was fast assuming a leading position in 26 28 the intersecting fields of cartography and geology. Embodied in such figures as Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Buch, Carl Ritter, Adolf Stieler, and Heinrich Berghaus, the principle project of geo-graphy the relationship of writing and space had by the turn of the nineteenth century assumed renewed cultural urgency. In this essay, I want to return to this historical moment when a range of individuals were thinking through challenging new ways of envisioning and representing space.
But in doing so I want to move beyond the confines of the disciplinary perspectives of cartography or geology and offer instead a broader perspective of how this new spatial awareness and the means to represent it came about. Keferstein s project, and Goethe s involvement in it, have traditionally been understood within two basic foundationalist narratives: But what is equally significant about this encounter is the way it illustrates the intimate intersection of two representational forms in print that both played a key role in shaping nineteenthcentury readers relationship to space: Keferstein s undertaking began when he wrote to his publisher, Ludwig Friedrich von Froriep Bertuch s successorin January of to ask Goethe for help in constructing a table of colors for the illumination of geological strata in his planned atlas.
Cotta schen Buchhandlung Pp 27 this period between January and the late summer of when Goethe was also preparing the first part 1. Theil of his last novel, Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre [Wilhelm Meister s Travels], for publication and conceptualizing portions that were to comprise the second part. And it was also during this period when Goethe then gave up on publishing the second part, which was gradually transformed over the course of the s into a second version 2. Fassunga shift that occurred during the same decade that saw Goethe s active involvement in the growing geological debates of his age and the observation of the maps that would serve as the visual proxies for such arguments.
The brief encounter between Goethe and Keferstein thus brings to light a larger cultural intersection between these two key nineteenth-century print genres, the map and the novel, that would have a decisive impact not only on Goethe s late work but on nineteenth-century readers more generally.
There has been a great deal of recent work on the intersections of cartography and the novel, participating in what has been felicitously termed the topographical turn in literary study today. Kartographie, Topographie, und Raumkonzepte in den Kulturwissenschaften. Pp Topographien der Literatur. Deutsche Literatur im transnationalen Kontext.
Atlas of the European Novel London: The Victorian Illustrated Book. The Spatial Imagination New York: Ordnungen der ungesicherten Welt. The Geographic Revolution in Early America. Maps, Literacy and National Identity. Kartographie und Dichtung um In: University of Chicago Press Bernhard Klein: Nor is it motivated by looking at how maps assume an illustrative function within novels, as subordinate to the word and separate from the scientific field that generated maps.
Rather, I am interested in exploring from a book-historical perspective the way maps and novels participated within a larger bibliographic universe of creating imaginary spaces for readers, the way they jostled with one another to shape readers relationship to, and thus perception of, space. My aim, in other words, is to bring together work in the various fields of the history of the book, history of science, and a history of literature in order to approach what Henri Lefebvre first called the study of the production of space.
And how did the emergence of such perceptual regimes promote and make available new kinds of subjectivity after ? How did sight and self, in other words, overlap? The role of Goethe s late work in transforming theories of both perception and subjectivity has served as one of the more vital sites for the growing field of visuality studies today. Despite such repeated attention to Goethe and the question of perception, however, little work has been done on the role of cartography in Goethe s own oeuvre or in shaping readers perceptual field during this 9 Bernhard Klein: Maps and the Writing of Space.
The Myth of Continents. A Critique of Metageography. University of California Press P. Blackwell See most recently, The Enlightened Eye: Goethe and Visual Culture. Moore and Patricia Anne Simpson. And yet as historians of cartography have told us, the early nineteenth century marked a period of dramatic cartographic change that was akin to the innovations brought about by the mapping of the new world in the early modern period.
Such changes were driven in large part by the work of German cartographers and natural historians during this period and they were integrally related to the emerging field of geology. The principles of mapping had shifted away from the early-modern prioritization of a static, global vision to an increasingly serialized, stratified, and relational one. This new object of knowledge crucially generated new ways of knowing. In what follows, I will explore the nexus of the map and the novel in their capacity to generate a new sense of space and self through the work of Goethe s late novels, his geological writings and illustrationsand the variety of cartographical projects that he either possessed or knew about from the early nineteenth century.
Not only did Goethe own an ample collection of maps during his lifetime over three-hundred maps and three miscellaneous atlases bringing the total close to cartographical leavesmaps also emerge with fascinating frequency in his prose fiction. Maps thus enter into Goethe s fiction in quite literal and diverse ways. Barker and Graham suggest that children do not show such effects because they do not apply the compensatory principle.
Finally, Rheinberg, and Weich showed that the frequency of this seemingly paradoxical effect increases linearly with age when only considering a range from 13 to 18 years. However, it is still unclear whether this linear trend remains across the whole lifespan, whether it asymptotically approaches an upper limit, or if it even decreases at a certain age. The Present Study [ TOP ] The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of seemingly paradoxical ability estimations across the whole lifespan.
It is important to note that previous literature has completely neglected potential effects of age cohorts in the area of praise and blame. Against this background, the present results would be of importance for our understanding of the mechanisms behind this seemingly paradoxical phenomenon.
If the frequency of this effect increased across the lifespan, we would have to rethink the tacit idea shared by the different theoretical approaches that an age-invariant cognitive mechanism with the exception of young children mediates the seemingly paradoxical effect of praise and blame across the whole lifespan.
Although the level of cognitive development should not be the moderating factor in adult age, previous findings suggest age-related differences in social judgments across the adult lifespan e.
Against the background of the attributional model it is important to note that older adults were found to use different schemas to explain social behavior Blanchard-Fields, All three explanation models described above focus on ability differences as the cause constituting seemingly paradoxical ability estimations. In addition to the usage of different causal schemas, the degree and the quality of judgments are influenced by the type and content of social dilemmas presented to study participants: Blanchard-Fields found the variability in age differences in attributional responding as a function of the specific content domain in question.
She demonstrated age and generational differences in the frequency of different schemas which were produced for different social dilemmas. For the present study this means we cannot simply derive conclusions from other research areas. No previous study addressed potential effects of age cohorts on the evaluation of the prototypical scenario that produces seemingly paradoxical ability estimations: Hence, we currently have very little knowledge of the influence of age in the context of this seemingly paradoxical effect.
Therefore, the present study was conducted to scrutinize potential age effects on ability estimations by an external observer in this case our study participants when confronted with the classical classroom scenario Meyer et al. In this scenario one student A is praised by a teacher whereas another student B is blamed for equal test performances.
The procedure was closely modeled on previous studies to allow for comparisons. The hypotheses in the present study are: Participants [ TOP ] subjects with a mean age of We used a German sample and all subjects were native speaker so that they were able to read and understand the written vignette describing the classroom scenario.
Children were acquired via a convenient sample in two schools; young adults were recruited on the university campus. We got access to middle aged adults via snowball sampling. Older adults and seniors were acquired from a senior sports club. In order to get access to very old subjects we visited two retirement homes.
Prior to the study, the home administration helped us to find a pre-selection of appropriate subjects i. The study conformed with the Code of Ethics of the American Psychological Association, to the Declaration of Helsinki, and to national guidelines. The study was initiated and coordinated entirely by the authors. They all voluntarily participated in the study and did not receive incentives. At the beginning of a session, participants were introduced to the topic of the study, but we did not explain the actual purpose of the study at that time.
Then the participants provided some demographic information. Afterwards, they were asked to carefully read a vignette describing the classical classroom situation in which a teacher treated two students who behaved identically unequally e.
Both students failed a difficult test, whereby only student B was blamed. Student A was treated neutrally despite failure. As Groeben and Blickle discussed elaborately, sanctioning statements of a speaker e. Hence, the recipient does not necessarily infer that specific utterances are signatures of praise or blame, respectively.
This is important to mention because a closed item format may prime specific ability estimations. This single item format was selected in accordance with previous studies e. The sequence of ability and sympathy rating was counterbalanced across participants to prevent sequence effects. This procedure first includes a categorization by two independent raters with the aid of a given category-system consisting of four categories: This category did not provide a more specific result pattern but may have lowered the discriminatory power of the entire category system.
For this, a moderated regression analysis and variance analytic approaches were used. Whenever important statistical assumptions were not fulfilled, reduced regression models or non-parametrical tests were applied. Initially, we calculated difference values with respect to the ability and sympathy rating, respectively. A substantial subsample of 59 participants A second group of 65 subjects