As told by “Papang” Moises, Wayne and Mike Caballero. Editor's Note: I shared this .. "He told me to come see you," replied the new patient. SEE Mlcheluzzi, Amorlno. Mitchell, Ursula. LADY. Mitchell, Willie. BONGO BEAT. C.I. BLUES. CRAWL. DON'T MAKE ME CRY. THAT'S WHY YOU'RE BLUE. Read on to meet Agnieszka Kruk, brewing your daily cup of coffee at At this time it was impossible for me because, in my city, we didn't Marysbel Caballero and Moises Herrera, it was the first time I met coffee farmers.
Otherwise, the system may fail to meet its expected function. While Data Quality DQ is a mature field, existing solutions are highly heterogeneous. Therefore, we propose that companies, developers and vendors should align their data quality management mechanisms and artefacts with well-known best practices and standards, as for example, those provided by ISO This standard enables a process-approach to data quality management, overcoming the difficulties of isolated data quality activities.
This is one of the core foundations of the Internet-of-Things IoT as stated by Ashton, who coined the term. IoT is an emerging global internet-based information architecture facilitating the exchange of goods and services [ 2 ]. IoT systems are inherently built on data gathered from heterogeneous sources in which the volume, variety and velocity of data generation, exchanging and processing are dramatically increasing [ 3 ].
The vast amount of data in IoT environments, gathered from a global-scale deployment of smart-things, is the basis for making intelligent decisions and providing better services e.
DAQUA-MASS: An ISO Based Data Quality Management Methodology for Sensor Data
In other words, data represents the bridge that connects cyber and physical worlds. Despite of its tremendous relevance, if data are of inadequate quality, decisions from both humans and other devices are likely to be unsound [ 67 ]. In IoT, and in particular, Smart, Connected Products SCPshave concrete characteristics that favour the apparition of problems due to inadequate levels of data quality.
While some of the SCP-related characteristics might be considered omnipresent i. Also, outside of the IoT research area, DQ has been broadly studied during last years, and it has become a mature research area capturing the growing interest of the industry due to the different types of values that companies can extract from data [ 12 ].
DAQUA-MASS: An ISO 8000-61 Based Data Quality Management Methodology for Sensor Data
In order to assure adequate levels of data quality, it is necessary to produce and implement methods, processes, and specific techniques for managing data concerns. We pose that such standards can be tailored and used within the IoT context, not only bring benefits standardizing solutions and enabling a better communication between partners.
Also, the number of problems and system fails on the IoT environment is reduced, better decisions can be taken due to a better quality of data, all stakeholders are aligned and can take benefit of the advances on the standard used, and it is easier to apply data quality solutions in a global way because the heterogeneity is reduced. Due to the youth of IoT, and despite DQ standards, frameworks, management techniques and tools proposed in the literature, DQ for IoT has not been yet widely studied.
However, and prior to this research line, it is possible to cite some works that had addressed some DQ concerns in sensor wireless networks [ 814 ], or in data streaming [ 1516 ] among other proposals [ 6 ].
However, these works have not considered the management of DQ in a holistic way in line with existing DQ-related standards. The idea found use, but not in the telegraph: The first experimental telephone exchange was built in Boston by the Bell company inand the next year, a commercial exchange was built in nearby Lowell, Massachusetts. The operator of your exchange would connect to the other exchange, and the operator of that exchange would connect you to your friend.
Just a year later, inan epidemic of measles broke out in Lowell. Local doctor Moses Greely Parker, apparently kind of a catastrophic thinker, feared that a bad measles outbreak might wipe out the operators at the popular Lowell telephone exchange, and it would be difficult for replacement operators to be trained on all the names they would need to know to make the connections.
In this system, the number of a telephone subscriber- say would always be prefaced by the exchange name. Exchange names proliferated beyond place names, as more and more exchanges were built. Long after the advent of direct dial, people knew their numbers in the exchange-number format: By the s, people stopped using exchange names in phone numbers.
Letters on telephone dials and pads began to seem like a quaint anachronism. However, no progress goes unchallenged. In an organization called the Anti Digit Dialing League was formed to combat the pernicious habit of all-digit dialing. They had thousands of members. Inthe toll-free number was introduced, and with it came a new custom: Often, vanity numbers tried to spell a word related to a business, using those letters on the dial put there to identify the now-obsolete telephone exchange name.
Those old letters had found a new use! And, since OBVIOUSLY any brand new specialty coffee company needed to have a cool phoneword-based vanity number, folks were on the lookout for coffee-related four letter words since phone numbers always end in four digits. The search was on. What about Java, that old nickname for coffee? Dozens of specialty coffee companies formed in the 80s and 90s have in their phone number: