# Albert einstein discovered the mathematical relationship between and

### From Newton to Einstein: the origins of general relativity

Albert Einstein is easily one of the most brilliant physicists who ever lived. Like Einstein, J. J. Thompson wondered about the connection between light and Thompson found that the electromagnetic mass of the electron is. Albert einstein discovered the mathematical relationship between. Ask for details; Follow; Report. by Stafampaigey 10/12/ Log in to add a comment. The astronomer who agreed with the heliocentric theory and was imprisoned for Albert Einstein discovered the mathematical relationship between __ and __.

In Einstein's new world, mass became a way to measure the total energy present in an object, even when it was not being heated, moved or irradiated or whatever else. Mass is just a super-concentrated form of energy and, moreover, these things can turn from one form to the other and back again. Nuclear power stations exploit this idea inside their reactors where subatomic particles, called neutrons, are fired at the nuclei of uranium atoms, which causes the uranium to split into smaller atoms.

The process of fission releases energy and further neutrons that can go on to split more uranium atoms. If you made very precise measurements of all the particles before and after the process, you would find that the total mass of the latter was very slightly smaller than the former, a difference known as the "mass defect".

That missing matter has been converted to energy and you can calculate how much using Einstein's equation. That is the equivalent of more than 40 megatons of TNT.

More practically, it is the amount of energy that would come out of a 1 gigawatt power plant, big enough to run 10 million homes for at least three years. A kg person, therefore, has enough energy locked up inside them to run that many homes for years. Unlocking that energy is no easy task, however.

## E=mc2: Einstein's equation that gave birth to the atom bomb

Nuclear fission is one of several ways to release a tiny bit of an atom's mass, but most of the stuff remains in the form of familiar protons, neutrons and electrons. One way to turn an entire block of material into pure energy would be to bring it together with antimatter.

Particles of matter and antimatter are the same, except for an opposite electrical charge. Bring them together, though, and they will annihilate each other into pure energy. Unfortunately, given that we don't know any natural sources of antimatter, the only way to produce it is in particle accelerators and it would take 10 million years to produce a kilogram of it.

### Albert Einstein discovered the mathematical relationship between ?

Particle accelerators studying fundamental physics are another place where Einstein's equation becomes useful. Special relativity says that the faster something moves, the more massive it becomes. In a particle accelerator, protons are accelerated to almost the speed of light and smashed into each other.

The high energy of these collisions allows the formation of new, more massive particles than protons — such as the Higgs boson — that physicists might want to study. So in order to grasp the meaning and significance of general relativity, it is worth reflecting on the state of physics in the 19th century to see how Einstein came to realise that space, time and geometry are not absolute but depend on the physical environment. The beauty of invariance In the 17th century, Isaac Newton developed a set of equations that described the physical properties of the world around us.

These equations were very successful, from a description of the flight of a cannonball, to the motion of the planets. They also had a very appealing property: So two individuals moving in different directions would see events unfold in the same way. Even though formally these individuals would see things in a different way — one might say that things move from left to right, whereas the other might say they move from right to left — still the fundamental description of the unfolding events would remain the same, and the laws of physics derived by these individuals would have literally the same form.

But in the 19th century, people started noticing that not everything plays accordingly to this rule. Problems with electromagnetism The 19th century was a time of extensive study of the phenomena of electricity, magnetism and light. Their form changes when we move from one inertial frame to another. So an individual who is not moving can observe distinctively different physical phenomena than a person who is moving.

All the beauty of invariance and irrelevance of observers that we had got used to in Newtonian physics was gone.

It now looked like some frames were preferable to others when it came to describing events in nature. The Lorentz transformation was different from the standard transformation of inertial frames that had been used in the Newtonian physics. In Newtonian physics, length and time are absolute, so the length of an object in one frame is the same as the length of that object in another frame.

**How Einstein discovered The General Theory of Relativity (Lecture - 01) by Professor G Srinivasan**

Also, time passes in the same way in one frame as in the other frame. However, if taken literally, the Lorentz transformation implies that time and length do actually change, depending on which frame of reference you are in.

He wondered whether time and space were absolute, or whether the principle of invariance of the laws of physics should be paramount. InEinstein decided that it is the invariance of the laws of physics that should have the highest status, and postulated the principle of relativity: When combined with electromagnetism, this principle would require that the transformation from one inertial frame to another must have a structure of the Lorentz transformation, meaning that time and space are no longer absolute and change their properties when changing from one inertial frame to another.

A visualisation of special relativity.

- Albert Einstein discovered the mathematical relationship between ?