Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of . the different domains of learning is that different instructional concepts for better integration, and, most importantly, learning theories allow for Concept mapping . guide the design of instruction, 2) careful linkage between each component. The integration of the above characteristics to a unified educational digital mobile learning theory explains how to effectively use mobile technology for . 4. Educational geographical map with content represented as pins. context are designed to help students link educational concepts with objects and. Learning technology comprises a collection of pragmatic and theoretical positions on the way The idea of using concept maps (Novak and Gowin ) or Before directly addressing the theory behind A/M, however, it will be useful to take as a . the freedom to manipulate concepts is pre-determined by an [is-a] relation.
However, a concept map goes beyond the typical outline in that concept maps show relationships between concepts, including bi-directional relationships. Usually, a concept map is divided into nodes and links. Nodes often circles represent various concepts; and links lines represent the relationships propositions between concepts Lanzing, Once completed, the concept map is a visual graphic that represents how the creator s thinks about a subject, topic, etc.
It illustrates how knowledge is organized for the individual. In sum, "concept maps are two-dimensional representations of cognitive structures showing the hierarchies and the interconnections of concepts involved in a discipline or a subdiscipline" Martin,p.
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- Best tools and practices for concept mapping
- Technology Integration: Connections to Educational Theories
Concept maps were first used by Joseph D. Novak of Cornell University in the s Lanzing. Concept maps have their origin in the learning movement called constructivism.
In particular, constructivists hold that prior knowledge is used as a framework to learn new knowledge. In essence, how we think influences how and what we learn. Concept maps identify the way we think, the way we see relationships between knowledge. Concept maps can thus illustrate faulty views individuals may have and help us better understand how students may construe meanings from subject matter. The teacher who constructs concept maps for classes is interested in students understanding relationships between facts, not just "knowing" the facts.
Concept Maps and Curriculum Design Concept maps can be used as excellent planning devices for instruction. Edmondson,describes the importance of using concept maps to develop the curriculum for a veterinarian program: The type of curriculum described by Edmondson is based on constructivist principles.
It is both problem-centered and student-centered. Extensive faculty planning using concept maps helps teachers tknow what it is that they want students to be able tlearn. Instead of asking, "what do I want to teach," the emphasis is on, "what do I want students to learn? The teachers in the study found the maps quite useful for the development of course plans. By constructing a concept map, you can see areas that appear trivial, that you may want tdrop from the course.
You can discover the themes you want to emphasize. You can understand how students may see or organize knowledge differently from you, which will help you better relate to the students and to challenge their ways of thinking.
The mapping process can help you identify concepts that are key to more than one discipline, which helps you move beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries.
Concept maps help you select appropriate instructional materials. You can construct a map that incorporates teaching strategies as well as time and task allocations for various parts of the course.
You can visually explain the conceptual relationships used for your objectives in any course. You can facilitate efforts to reconceptualize course content.
Rather than being a traditional course plan that assumes students will integrate learning, concept maps depict the intentions of faculty -- the integration you expect to occur. You can use concept maps to provide a basis for discussion among students and to summarize general course concepts.
Concept maps support a holistic style of learning. Mapping concepts can increase your ability to provide meaningfulness to students by integrating concepts. Concept maps can increase your potential to see multiple ways of constructing meaning for students.
Mapping the concepts can help you develop courses that are well-integrated, logically sequenced, and have continuity. Concept maps help "teachers design units of study that are meaningful, relevant, pedagogically sound, and interesting to students" Martin, p. Concept maps help "the teacher to explain why a particular concept is worth knowing and how it relates to theoretical and practical issues both within the discipline and without" Allen, et al. Steps in Making a Concept Map Write down major terms or concepts about a topic.
Technology Integration: Connections to Educational Theories – CITE Journal
Identify the most general, intermediate, and specific concepts. Begin drawing the concept map: Concepts are circled Place the most general concepts at the top Place intermediate concepts below general concepts Put specific concepts on bottom Draw lines between related concepts. Label the lines with "linking words" to indicate how the concepts are related. Constructivism As stated earlier, concept maps have their origins in constructivism. This section is design to provide some insight into the general principles of constructivism.
Constructivism is derived from the field of cognitive psychology. The main assumption of constructivism is that knowledge does not exist "out there" in an objective reality. Facts become facts because it is knowledge that is agreed upon by communities of learners. The learner comes into any new situation with prior knowledge based on past experiences. New knowledge is learned through integration with prior knowledge. Several educational principles have been derived from constructivism: Concept development and deep understanding are the goals of instruction, not behaviors or skills Fosnot.
Learning is a constructive activity that students have tcarry out. However the younger educators are more inclined to use technology to enhance learning. It can be very time consuming and because of this many enthusiastic educators fall by the way and refuse to preserve with the task of using technology in the classroom.
When we talk about technology, we are talking about electronic devices that are used to educate, entertained, or use by human as a means of communication.
It is used in the classroom as a teaching aid. Some of the technological aids that are use by teachers in the classroom are computers, cameras, radios, television, email, internet websites, videos, Microsoft word, and many other technological tools.
These aids are used to promote students learning at all level of the learning strata, to get a desire outcome; as it aide students to reach their full potentials.
Best tools and practices for concept mapping | NspireD2: Learning Technology in Higher Ed.
These theories are behaviourism, cognition, constructivism, engagement theory, situated cognition, and disturb learning theory. Some of these theories are highly suited for integration of technology in the classroom, while others are not. One theory which is thought to be in line with technology in the classroom is behaviourism learning theory. A behaviourist perspective intends to guarantee learning and behaviour modification through a stimulus-response approach. This approach is a behaviourist perspective intended to guarantee learning and behavioural modification through a stimulus ,response approach of which B.
Skinner was the father.
Such approach includes time controlled-events specific and reachable goals and track able result. This is a reinforcing effort that is describe by researchers as an instructional strategy that enhances students understandingof the relationship between the teachers and students; in order to keep track of students effort,attitude and behaviour modification.
Instructional strategy is an approach in which students learning are received passively, as educators use the practice and drill method. The lesson gears toward getting the desire out come in order to change students, attitude and encouraging them to achieve at the highest level in their learning experiences.
Even though behaviourism is considered by many educators to be unsuitable in the use of technology in the classroom, it can be use if implemented using the Technological Integrated matrix. Yes, the educator can start off by allow ing students to use technological tools and learn passively for a class or two as they are actively engage in learning the new skills. However the desire outcome will be more effective when the educator allow his students to collaborate with other students to use the technological tools; to actively engage students in a collaborative manner to research and find answers to enhance their learning.
Furthermore the educator can direct students in the use technology, so that they can to become more independent as they are allow to be constructive; as they search, explore and investigate with other peers to do their assignments.CMap of Learning btcmu.info4
This will leave the instructors free to evaluate and give students feedback, in order for them to know where their strength and their weakness lies.
I therefore believe that behaviourism as it place in the technological classroom in the twenty first century. Constructivism Learning Theory Constructivism is a learning theory develop by Jean Piaget, he believed that children construct their own knowledge as they are actively engage in activities that are hands on and the materials are age appropriates as children schema are develop in stages.
He believed that students must grow through all these stages and that cannot they do not skip over a stage. According to Roblyer,p. Knowledge is therefore constructed and not transmitted and students generate new knowledge through activities, experiences, and experiments.
Using technology in the constructivist classroom can greatly enhance students learning, as this theory calls for hand on experiences. Here the students would not be allow to sit passively while they are instructed by their teacher, they would be guided to discover for themselves.
Students in the constructivist classroom in which technology is infused would be collaborative ,as they would be encourage to work together to achieve higher learning. The use of constructivism theory in an environment with technology would helps students reach their full potential. The students that are expose to this type of classroom can be constructive, authentic and goal directed, as they are guided by their educators to to investigate, explore, discover and experiment.
In so doing they become team leaders and team players willingly working with others they plan and present their findings. The facilitators are also able to follow as they use various technological tools to use in assessing and giving feedback to their students.