Mark Antony - Wikipedia
Although Mark Antony died fighting Octavian's efforts to become Rome's sole Rome's provinces between them: Octavian would rule the West, Antony the East and The lovers grew more public in their relationship, participating in deification. Octavian, Antony, and Marcus Lepidus were were part of a Although Antony and Cleopatra had a romantic relationship that produced three children, this. Octavius, later known as Augustus, was only about 18 when Julius died. Julius What was the relationship between Octavius and Julius Caesar like? What was the relationship between Marc Antony and Julius Caesar?.
The Battle of Pharsalus: Antony commanded the left wing of Caesar's army. During the Greek campaign, Plutarch records Antony was Caesar's top general and second to only him in reputation. With food sources running low, Caesar, in July, ordered a nocturnal assault on Pompey's camp, but Pompey's larger forces pushed back the assault.
Though an indecisive result, the victory was a tactical win for Pompey. Pompey, however, did not order a counter-assault on Caesar's camp, allowing Caesar to retreat unhindered. Caesar would later remark the civil war would have ended that day if Pompey had only attacked him.
Assuming a defensive position at the plain of PharsalusCaesar's army prepared for pitched battle with Pompey's, which outnumbered his own two to one. Though the civil war had not ended at Pharsulus, the battle marked the pinnacle of Caesar's power and effectively ended the Republic.
After Pompey's defeat, most of the Senate defected to Caesar, including many of the soldiers who had fought under Pompey. The young Cleopatra became Caesar's mistress and bore him a son, Caesarion. Caesar's actions further strengthened Roman control over the already Roman-dominated kingdom. The chief cause of his political challenges concerned debt forgiveness. One of the Tribunes for 47 BC, Publius Cornelius Dolabellaa former general under Pompey, proposed a law which would have canceled all outstanding debts.
Antony opposed the law for political and personal reasons: When Dolabella sought to enact the law by force and seized the Roman ForumAntony responded by unleashing his soldiers upon the assembled mass. Antony's violent reaction had caused Rome to fall into a state of anarchy. Caesar sought to mend relations with the populist leader; he was elected to a third term as Consul for 46 BC, but proposed the Senate should transfer the consulship to Dolabella.
When Antony protested, Caesar was forced to withdraw the motion out of shame. Later, Caesar sought to exercise his prerogatives as Dictator and directly proclaim Dolabella as Consul instead.
After returning victorious from North Africa, Caesar was appointed Dictator for ten years and brought Cleopatra and their son to Rome. Antony again remained in Rome while Caesar, in 45 BC, sailed to Spain to defeat the final opposition to his rule.
When Caesar returned in late 45 BC, the civil war was over. During this time Antony married his third wife, Fulvia.
Following the scandal with Dolabella, Antony had divorced his second wife and quickly married Fulvia. Assassination of Julius Caesar Ides of March[ edit ] Whatever conflicts existed between himself and Caesar, Antony remained faithful to Caesar, ensuring their estrangement did not last long. Caesar planned a new invasion of Parthia and desired to leave Antony in Italy to govern Rome in his name. The reconciliation came soon after Antony rejected an offer by Gaius Treboniusone of Caesar's generals, to join a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar.
The festival was held in honor of Lupathe she-wolf who suckled the infant orphans Romulus and Remusthe founders of Rome. Caesar had enacted a number of constitutional reforms which centralized effectively all political powers within his own hands. He was granted further honors, including a form of semi-official cultwith Antony as his high priest.
Caesar's political rivals feared these reforms were his attempts at transforming the Republic into an open monarchy. During the festival's activities, Antony publicly offered Caesar a diademwhich Caesar refused. The event presented a powerful message: By refusing it, Caesar demonstrated he had no intention of making himself King of Rome.
Antony's motive for such actions is not clear and it is unknown if he acted with Caesar's prior approval or on his own.
- What Caused the Conflict Between Octavian & Antony?
A group of Senators resolved to kill Caesar to prevent him from seizing the throne. Although Cassius was "the moving spirit" in the plot, winning over the chief assassins to the cause of tyrannicideBrutus, with his family's history of deposing Rome's kings, became their leader. Antony was supposed to attend with Caesar, but was waylaid at the door by one of the plotters and prevented from intervening. According to the Greek historian Plutarchas Caesar arrived at the Senate, Lucius Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother.
Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenseless on the lower steps of the portico.
According to Roman historian Eutropiusaround 60 or more men participated in the assassination. Caesar was stabbed 23 times and died from the blood loss attributable to multiple stab wounds. When this did not occur, he soon returned to Rome. The conspirators, who styled themselves the Liberatores "The Liberators"had barricaded themselves on the Capitoline Hill for their own safety. Though they believed Caesar's death would restore the Republic, Caesar had been immensely popular with the Roman middle and lower classeswho became enraged upon learning a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion.
Antony, as the sole Consul, soon took the initiative and seized the state treasury.
Conflict Between Mark Antony and Octavian
CalpurniaCaesar's widow, presented him with Caesar's personal papers and custody of his extensive property, clearly marking him as Caesar's heir and leader of the Caesarian faction.
Lepidus wanted to storm the Capitol, but Antony preferred a peaceful solution as a majority of both the Liberators and Caesar's own supporters preferred a settlement over civil war.
Caesar's assassins would be pardoned of their crimes and, in return, all of Caesar's actions would be ratified. Antony also agreed to accept the appointment of his rival Dolabella as his Consular colleague to replace Caesar.
This compromise was a great success for Antony, who managed to simultaneously appease Caesar's veterans, reconcile the Senate majority, and appear to the Liberatores as their partner and protector. Antony would struggle with Octavian for leadership of the Caesarian party following Caesar's assassination.
On 19 March, Caesar's will was opened and read.
In it, Caesar posthumously adopted his great-nephew Gaius Octavius and named him his principal heir. Then only 19 years old and stationed with Caesar's army in Macedonia, the youth became a member of Caesar's Julian clanchanging his name to "Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus" Octavian in accordance with the conventions of Roman adoption. Though not the chief beneficiary, Antony did receive some bequests.
Caesar's funeral was held on 20 March. Antony, as Caesar's faithful lieutenant and reigning Consul, was chosen to preside over the ceremony and to recite the elegy. During the demagogic speech, he enumerated the deeds of Caesar and, publicly reading his will, detailed the donations Caesar had left to the Roman people.
Antony then seized the blood-stained toga from Caesar's body and presented it to the crowd. Worked into a fury by the bloody spectacle, the assembly rioted. Several buildings in the Forum and some houses of the conspirators were burned to the ground. Panicked, many of the conspirators fled Italy. Such an assignment, in addition to being unworthy of their rank, would have kept them far from Rome and shifted the balance towards Antony.
Refusing such secondary duties, the two traveled to Greece instead. Additionally, Cleopatra left Rome to return to Egypt. Despite the provisions of Caesar's will, Antony proceeded to act as leader of the Caesarian faction, including appropriating for himself a portion of Caesar's fortune rightfully belonging to Octavian.
Antony enacted the Lex Antoniawhich formally abolished the Dictatorship, in an attempt to consolidate his power by gaining the support of the Senatorial class. He also enacted a number of laws he claimed to have found in Caesar's papers to ensure his popularity with Caesar's veterans, particularly by providing land grants to them.
Lepidus, with Antony's support, was named Pontifex Maximus to succeed Caesar. Surrounding himself with a bodyguard of over six thousand of Caesar's veterans, Antony presented himself as Caesar's true successor, largely ignoring Octavian. Therefore, it is additionally arguable that Cleopatra aligned herself with Mark Antony in an attempt to safeguard her own control of Egypt. Through the available evidence, it is obvious to deduce that regardless of his youth, Octavian excelled at the same talents which his adoptive father and great-uncle had; coercion, oratory and networking with a selfish purpose.
Such qualities made Octavian a supremely talented statesman who served himself above all others. Octavian was willing to appear to support the republic to gain the support of the senate, and for that purpose alone. Although Octavian ultimately defeated Mark Antony, their failed alliance undoubtedly initiated the conflict and gave Octavian insight into the nature of his enemy, as well as acting as a precursor to their eventual conflict. The Battle of Actium served as the culmination of the tensions between Mark Antony and Octavian, greatly influencing the importance of their conflict as it was at this naval battle that the victor was decided.
Such an act was portrayed by Octavian as an insult to Rome as well as to the Caesarians and himself personally. Naturally, when Octavian declared war on Cleopatra, he did so with the hope and knowledge that Antony would come to her aid, initiating what has been named the Final War of the Roman Republic, with the Battle of Actium as the combat theatre see appendix 1. The battle itself was rather anticlimactic as Octavian with the assistance of his general and friend Agrippa dominated the battle.
A similar situation occurred on land. However, it is doubtful if any Romans would have even been aware of this milestone, as Octavian, his faction and patronage represented such an enormous demonstration of continuity that details were of no concern to the populous.
The Augustan principate that shadowed this evolution demonstrated a means of supervising the respublica which had previously been impossible to determine.
Mark Antony - HISTORY
It can be argued that this evolution, or collapse, of the republic had been amassing itself over an entire century prior to the Battle of Actium. Instead of disappearing, the traditional governmental devices of the republic eventually became indispensable portions of the Augustan principate.Octavian & Marc Antony [btcmu.info's family]
To this end, it can be argued strongly that the battle of Actium was the culmination of the conflict between Mark Antony and Octavian. This event severely impacted and influenced the eventual history of Rome, and with the conflict between the men and subsequent battle, history may have taken a dramatically different course.
Evidently, this emphasizes the magnitude of importance of the conflict between Antony and Octavian, as the events and the result that unfolded at the battle of Actium had far reaching effects on the political and military structure of Rome, in addition to its history and consequently, that of the world.
Octavian was bestowed the name Augustus, and termed himself as princeps to avoid the impression of royalty. This alone would have been enough to doom him, discrediting him forever in the eyes of his peers.
The subsequent suicide of Cleopatra and execution of Ptolemy Caesar ended the three hundred year old Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt. The wealth of Egypt was utilised by Augustus to further his successes in Rome. Augustus now too controlled all the Roman legions throughout the Empire in addition to being granted tribucian sacrosanctity.
Augustus had earned the power that he fought for and acted in a manner favourable to the populas romanus by undertaking public work programs, hosting gladiatorial contests, restoring public finances, cancelling unpaid taxes, halving the army and giving soldiers pensions and settlements and finally reducing the senatorial role to six hundred, to name a few of his actions.