Compasso ternary relationship


This is an ER diagram example that shows the use of ternary relationship in an ERD. This ER design example and template can be edited with Visual Paradigm Online, an online diagramming software. An entity relationship diagram (also known as ER model or ER diagram in short. It inherits the collinearity and congruence relations from the Euclidean plane . that the operation symbols are at most ternary (and thus have the smallest possible arity). F. SeveriSui problemi determinati risolubili colla riga e col compasso. You can see the relationships between note lengths .. The staff is divided into measures or bars (= compassos). The ternary form has three sections.

The main feature of this power of music is not exactly its sound, but its rhythm. One of the most interesting psychologists from the Nancy school, Paul Souriau, asserts that works of art exert an hypnotic and suggestive influence in the truly technical meaning of these words, and that this is mainly a result of rhythm Baudoin,p.

In our music of sorcery, I distinguish three ways of using rhythm. In sorcery of immediate African origin the violence of an insistent rhythm is preponderant. A short rhythmic motif is repeated hundreds of time in order to provoke obsession. The songs become eminently choreographic and are indeed generally accompanied by dancing.

But the dance also brings about dizziness, which is why it is also utilised by all religions. While these days it is associated with superstition and magic, it was originally a religious dance, which was performed in Catholic temples until the XV century. It was at first the Dance of Maccabees, Chorea Macchabocorum. Basically mimetic, it reproduced the resurrection of the dead, as told by Judas Macabeus Tylor, op.

The mimetic choreography persists above all in propitiatory ceremonies. Such a dance imitates the life of a god, as in the primitive Greek dithyramb, or an animal from which the tribe believes it descends. In it, a water snake was symbolised by a vine placed in the centre of the ring of dancers. Sons of Shango, for example, are sons of thunder. And it may have been the abandoning of the pre-logical traditions of worshipping thunder and meteorites, becoming their sons, that led the sorcery of macumba to identify Shangos and Oguns with Catholic saints.

But there are also religious dances which take place indoors. Or, even because he is a visitor. This choreography is so typical of religious dancing that one can find it in all kinds of dance and it is frequently performed by many of the spectators who follow probably involuntarily the various developments of the dance.

The music of sorcery in Brazil (Literary Conference)

One of the maracatus that I saw in Pernambuco followed exactly the choreography described by Nina Rodrigues. And, moreover, the North-eastern maracatus always carry a fetish that is brought by one of the important members of the group. This is one of their distinctive qualities. In general the lines have a very free rhythm, legitimate recitatives.

These free rhythms, with a slow beat, are eminently dubious, as you might say. They seem to be particularly indecisive, vague, quarrelsome-which is more in line with the psychic state proper to the manifestations of low spiritism.

Even though he knew our music pretty well, he told me of one song whose drum beat he had difficulty in following and which he found impossible to transcribe. Incisive rhythm is another characteristic of the musics of Afro-Brazilian sorcery.

Apart from these two eminently hypnotic rhythms, the one with strong beats and the one with freer ones, I mention yet another, more or less intermediary between these two. In this one, slight accelerations in the beat are occasionally introduced within the dominant rhythm.

This has the perturbing effect of displacing accents and bar lines. This subtlety is characteristic of the songs for Father Joaquim. This is in effect a very frequent occurrence in our rural choreographies.

We transcribe them in binary form because of the accents and the shaping of the bars. But the ordinary person does not use our misleading rhythmic system that forces us to begin with the multiple to reach the unit. He employs the wise and logical principle of starting from the unit to reach the multiple, as the Greeks did. And this allows him a wealth of rhythms.

If he has one more word, if he needs to breathe, if the melodic fantasy comes to him, he simply inserts the word, breathes or vocalises as he wishes, adding one more beat and moving the accent. In truth, the only legitimate bar that our people make use of for dancing is a unitary one. It is the ponto de Ogun Odeon But this quality is still not the most admirable aspect of the ponto for Ogun.

The hypnotic force of the music is truly much appreciated by the people. It comes into being through a very curious process, a veritable compromise between rhythm and harmony. The rhythm does not end at the same time as the melody. This makes us begin the song again so that it can reach its final tonal development.

One might say that in music the Brazilian people have invented perpetual motion… Let me explain; in any given text, a rhythm of an exclusively musical order is established. It usually consists of the repetition of one or more rhythmic motifs.

Unary, Binary, and Ternary Relationships

Grouped together by the accents these repetitions fix the binary nature of the rhythm and the strophic framing of the melody. Thus, when the text reaches its final point, the rhythm of the melody also reaches its final point. This brings about a sensation of restfulness that not only permits, but actually provokes the end of the singing.

But it so happens that the harmonic development of the melody, when text and rhythm reach their conclusions, is not based on the tonal triad, but on one of the passing notes of the scale, thus producing a dissonant chord.

If the melody had been also in the tonic or the third note in the scale, the sensation of restfulness, of finalization, would be complete and would result in a cessation of the repetition. But what the Brazilian psyche desires is repetition, innumerable repetitions that hypnotise or intoxicate, and for this reason, as text and rhythm end, the melody is at the leading note, at the second step, on the fourth, in general provoking precisely the chord of the seventh-dominant, that makes it necessary to continue with at least one last note.

But for this note to be played, one has to begin the text and the rhythm again, and once they have begun it is absolutely necessary to go again to the end of both of them.

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But on reaching the end, the tonal development of the melody compels one to begin yet again. And this leads to the unending multiplication of the short phrase of the singing, and enhances, thus, physio-psychically speaking, all its hypnotic power. Also, the ponto for Yansan Odeon, uses this process of intoxication through music. The ponto for Ogun has yet another interesting characteristic: The concept of variation changes considerably over time, yet this is positively not the place for me to explain their diverse modalities, from the bass grounds of the virginal players to the symphonic variations of our time.

Our people follow a process, which is not all that different from the one made popular by Grieg, in which in the repetition of a motif, or part of a phrase, the presentation can be slightly modified by the addition of a note or by a change in rhythm. In Brazil, the process of variation consists in the repetition of the melody, in changing two or three notes, or, because of the accentuations of the words of the text, altering the position of an accent.

This process, that clearly began with lapses of memory, is nowadays practised systematically. In the emboladas that vary over the refrain, such variation may be truly beautiful. In general such variation is purposefully mediocre involving the change of a few notes, the moving of only one accent.

In fact the impression one has is that there is a theme, exclusively virtual, which is therefore impossible to determine with exactness, over which the singers always introduce quartertones, voluntary dissonance, indiscernible nasalization, with vocal portamenti. All of this, because it is so rudimentary, leaving the singer and the listeners in amazing indecision, totally disoriented and dizzy: So, I insist on the hypnotic quality, which is sought by our popular music.

Our people in various genres and forms of their principally rural music, cocos, sambas, modas, cururus, etc. Our people often use music not only for sorcery but in profane songs, especially choreographed, as a legitimate narcotic. In the same way as Huitota, or the grandson of the dethroned Inca always has coca leaves in his mouth, so the Brazilian man brings in his mouth the melody he dances that numbs and stupefies his entire being.

It stupefies, it brings about numbness and drunkenness which provoke, beyond fatigue, a temporary, or even permanent, consumption, ah such lassitude! And it is its formidable hypnotic value that links together all music, from the most distant past that our knowledge can reach to the invocation, propitiation and the exorcism of supernatural forces.

Music of sorcery and magical acts are not employed only as a means through which men may please the divinity; they enable men to enter into contact with the divinity, exercising almost the role of a spirit medium. And, more than this, they are considered as a generous, liturgical entity that has the eucharistic function of putting the individual into ecstasy, in communion with his god.

Music is an occult force, incomprehensible by itself. It does not touch in any way our intellectual comprehension, such as do gestures, a line, a word and the volume in other arts. On the other hand it socialises more and is dynamic, the most dionysian and hypnotic, especially in its primary forms where rhythm predominates. Thus, music is terrible, incredibly strong and most mysterious.

Yet it is also divine and unhuman, it is daimoniacal, and truly demoniacal in the sense that the gods created by primitive peoples are more evil than good. This is why music is identified with demons; it is not an art, it is not an element of pleasure, it is not an immediately unnecessary function because it is difficult to prove that primitive man like ordinary people as well could conceive the beauty of sound, as he clearly conceived of the beauty of colour and form. For all these reasons, no one considers music as a human creation.

There is a quasi unanimity among the primitives and Ancients in attributing the invention of musical arts to the gods. But it was Texcatlipoca who threw a bridge between the earth and the sky to come and teach music to men Combarieu, In India, it was the goddess Saravasti, the wife of Brahma, who invented music; the veena, the national musical instrument par excellence is the invention of the son of this couple, the god Nareda; the seven notes in the scale are the seven gods, and the sons of the gods preside over different systems.

As if that were not enough, the ragas like the Egyptian Maneros, the Phrygian Linoi and the Greek Nomoi, were at the same time gods less the Greek one and cult melodies had stupendous magical powers, one had darkness cover the earth, another brought flames from the earth, and another brought rain.

Apart from this, the strong superstition among us that it rains because someone sang comes from the almost universal tradition of the cult song ad pretendam pluviam. The Sumerian goddess who answers to the lovely name of Nina was a musician, and with her art she excited the gods and their brethren to work for the happiness of the people; and among the Sumerians, musician priests were always highly valued, forming a special class of singers.

Persia is the only amazing exception to this unanimity, for at sacrifices the playing of music was prohibited. The flute is a demonic instrument throughout oriental antiquity. This proves the existence of chromatic flutes in the Assyrian-Chaldean civilization, as was also the case for ancient Egypt.

In Phrygia, which had such an important influence over Greek music, we find an enormous mixture of musical practice and mythical explanation; the three musical geniuses are mythical, Olympus, Hiagnis and Marsyas. In Greece also, the divinities were present at the birth of music and came to teach the mortals.

The Muses of the sacred groves of Boeotia and Thessaly presided over the arts. Among them, Euterpe, lady of instrumental music.

Orpheus came down from the North and with his singing accompanied on the fragile strings of the lyre calmed anger and entertained. They say that he founded a school and that among his students were Eumolpus and Musaeus, as fabulous as he. Anphion had the walls of Thebes built through the magic of song. Thamyris, Chrysostemo, the sitar player, Olem the first to sing in epic rhymes, Philemon and Chrysostom, Lino and Phemius who sang at the triumphal return of Agamemnon, Kepion and Aristonicus, who came from various places, are still haunting names, the first artists to teach the Greeks the divine magic of music.

Because music was divine, yes, and those who cultivated it such as Eumolpus, the fathers of the Eleusis and the aoidoi themselves. Among the gods themselves we find the music played by Apollo and his phorminx, his son Linus who transmitted his musical knowledge to Hercules; and Marsyas - Pixinguinha 31 among others crowned with laurels - who picked up the aulos that had been abandoned on the ground by Athene because when she played it, it deformed the perfection of her face.

The magical music of the spheres that lent such lyricism to the Egyptians was of concern to the Hebrews themselves as one can infer from the book of Job. While in Genesis [Genesis, IV, 21] there is mention that the most special distinction of Jubal, head of the race, was to invent the kinnor and the ugab, in Numbers [Numbers, X, ] it is the very God of Israel who commands Moses to make silver trumpets and to give them liturgical functions when played by priests, the sons of Aaron.

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Now among the Indians of Brazil, even though there is no indication that music was a divine invention, it is easy enough to verify that it is constantly associated with supernatural forces. In Amazonian legends, the flute membi is held to greet and bring cheer.

Among the techniques which Iara uses to kill the Indians, the most visibly magical is to appear singing. There is, however, a Kaingang legend that definitively affirms the supernatural creation of music. Leaning against the trunk were small sticks with leaves on them and a special one with a gourd attached to one end. They soon went to tell of their find and the chief imagined what this must be.

He hid near the tree trunk and waited. Soon after the sticks began to move as if dancing and a voice sang: On the following day the chief returned with all his retinue and this time they heard a different song. Because the song ceased if anyone got close, they gave up trying to find out what was happening. They took the little sticks to their house and memorized the song. His followers imitated him and so song and dance came about in the tribe.

But who taught them? One day the chief came across an anteater in the forest and raised his club to kill it. The cacrequim, 32 however, stood on its hind feet and showed whom he was, dancing and singing, what the chief knew. Yes, an anteater, but only now, because of course the animal belonged to the first peoples of the Earth who, being old and very wise, had taken the form of animals.

So, if music is divine and comes from God who teaches it to man, it follows that it is imagined to have extra-physical qualities. The Greeks strongly developed their concern with the moral influence of music. They called these moralizing musical forces Ethos so that each scale, rhythm and genre had its own particular ethos.

In China, with a mixture of astrology, cosmology and philosophy, religious books take their concern with the moralizing force of music to absurd limits. Another magical power of music is that of curing. That this it is one of its most generalised functions in sorcery is not totally incorrect. Vergnes, that since music is a vibration of the ether it may bring about more or less profound changes in the cells of our organism.

In the folk singing of our people, the Romance of the Horse, these magical curative properties of music are admirably made use of and even made fun of by the poor yet sharp musician who has a fiddle that can even raise Lazaruses from their tombs. In fact, one should not think that by paying such attention to primitive people, our own people in general, and in antiquity, I wish to free Christian civilization from musical superstition. Indeed, Christianity provides us with edifying examples… In his recent introductory volume to the Oxford History of Music, 34 Edward Dent devotes a fascinating chapter to the social aspects of music during the first ten centuries A.

It is interesting, for example, to note that the philosophers of the Roman Empire always attributed a religious character to music exactly when it was passing through one of its periods of great moral decline, a decadent accompaniment to festivities and pantomimes.

Plotinus related music closely to magic and to prayer, although he recognised its sensual pleasure. Music was always understood to have a hypnotic quality… The priests of the primitive church inherited the doctrines of the pre-Christian philosophers, considering music to be the most important of the arts. It is interesting to relate this concern with keeping music away from women, pursued in Catholicism to this day, with the customs of natural religions that often make religious music, especially when instrumental, a very taboo for women.

Roquette Pinto, for example, reports that the Amerindian women of Mato Grosso are prohibited from seeing or even hearing certain sacred instruments. Schmidt and Koppers, in their most interesting volume on the society and industry of diverse peoples, explain this musical taboo as belonging to the period of transition from the patriarchal civilizations of hunters and herders to the matriarchal period of agricultural peoples.

The matriarchate put such emphasis on the predominance of women that men had to counteract feminine superiority by reserving religious practice for themselves only. And while esotericism and magic nowadays derive their musical practices from the ancient Chinese, Indians, Egyptians and Chaldeans, the Christian religion itself has not escaped from such esotericism. The psaltery was explained as the representation of the body of Christ. The tymbal was the chastisement of the flesh as I have shown in the phrase of Saint Gregory, and this can be included in analogical superstitions.

But the trumpet, the Roman tibia were interpreted as the very word of God. But what about the closing of my body! As he napped, he sang along half-heartedly with Master Manuel who had more energy and an agreeable voice. I perceived behind me the fearful chattering of the women.

I got quite a fright. He did not reply. He so slurred his syllables, that I had difficulty in understanding what he was saying. I confess that I was very much impressed. He stayed for about five minutes replying wrongly to everything. He had no desire to begin the closing of my body, and I ended up furious with him. Suddenly he would not reply to any further questions.

The singing started again and one or another god was invoked. Propitiatory melodies followed, their words recalling the qualities and lives of the Masters of the nether world of spirits. Among them the song of Master Antonio Caboclinho was curious in the sense that is had been composed in a legitimate pentatonic scale.

The pentatonic scale, at least, is a singular presence in Afro-Brazilian sorcery. I myself have an unpublished song that opens a macumba ritual in Rio de Janeiro and which is also pentatonic. The pontos for Ogun and Eshu on a Parlaphon record, are decidedly pentatonic, even though the second of the two uses only 4 notes of the scale.

The heptatonic solo line is superimposed, probably as an individualistic invention, bearing no relationship to the chorus. I cannot flee from the pleasure of citing this marvel. This is definetly the most used relationship type. Journalist writes an article. This example can be implemented very easily. In the diagram below, we represent our ternary relationship with an extra table, which can be modelled in Vertabelo very quickly.

In other words, a group can have specific classess only at one classrom. Sometimes it is possible to replace a ternary or n-ary relationship by a collection of binary relationship connecting pairs of the original entities. However, in many cases it is hard to replace ternary relationship with two or more binary relationships because some information could be lost.

Another ternary relationship presents a different situation — Teacher recommends a book for a class: In the example with groups and classes, the primary key consisted only of two foreign keys.

Entity Relationship Diagram Example: Student Score - Ternary Relationship

This meant that there could be only one classroom for a specific group and class. In this situation the primary key consists of all three foreign keys. It makes a significant difference, because in this case it is possible to recommend more than one book for a specific course by one teacher.

It is possible that the teacher recommended the book for another class.