The purpose of this article is to illustrate the relationships between the components The model in Figure 2 allows for questions such as (c) and (d). WAYS OF answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instruction. These questions. lowest and highest level of courses; in the instruction questions .. “TIMSS is based on a model of curriculum that has three components: the. perspectives on social changes, and on the relationship between the curricula and the social . questions, which must be answered in developing any curriculum and are selected, content is outlined, instructional procedures are developed.
Obviously the syntax can be quite different for each model. Principles of Reaction tell the teacher how to regard the learner and how to respond to what the learner does during the use of the model. Often responses in using a designated model should be appropriate and selectively specific. This portion of the model alerts the teacher on how to react to the responses of the students. The Social System describes the interactions between students and teacher as each model is viewed as if it were a mini society.
Since every teaching model is different, each model will have its own social system and rules of engagement. This portion concerns the interactive roles and relationships between the teacher and the student, expected norms, and which student behaviors should be rewarded. These may be overtly described or simply inferred. Depending on the philosophical orientation of the model, in some models the role of the teachers is dominant, while in others his or her role is passive.
In some models the roles center on the teacher, and in others the concentration is on the students. There are still other models that require shared roles whereby teachers and students share roles equally. In this segment both motivational strategies and tactics for engaging students could be discussed too.
Support system defines the supporting conditions required to implement the model successfully. This component relates to any additional requirements beyond those generally possessed by teachers or found in schools.
What requirements are needed to make this model work? Are special skills or knowledge needed; or is there special equipment, media, or learning environment requirements that need to be accessed in using this model? This support would also include special books, films, laboratory kits, reference materials, permissions, facilities, etc. Application and effects are rather apparent — how can the students use what the model teaches?
Application is the utility of the model as it can be transferred to other situations. Each model attempts to implement some change in learners and influence their thinking, feelings, social interactions, or physical movements in some way so that those changes can be transferred to other situations and experiences.
Many models of teaching were created long before Joyce, Weil and Calhoun developed their 6 elements of a model list above. In the models these authors selected for their book they examine the individual components for each chosen model thus making it easy for readers to see how each category works. This should not diminish their effectiveness or value, but rather it is a condition of time and personal analysis.
Different classifying authors see different elements.
As I indicated earlier, many models are hybrids combining elements from varied theories of learning and this makes them more difficult to pigeon hole correctly. The listing below is not fully conclusive but places to start your searches. Readers are encouraged to seek out additional models on their own using the titles of the models as search descriptors. I have linked some examples of materials from the WWW but you too can find them using the title of the model.
It is exceptionally helpful in that they have gathered links from YouTube whereby viewers can actually see examples of teachers using or demonstrating the models, or parts of models. There are also general teaching strategies sites that include links to both models and individual strategies.
Please explore those examples for more ideas.
Please, if you find exceptional examples, write to me so I too can add this information and we can spread the word!
Personal or Personalist Models: Exploring personal goals for relaxation, or using self-initiated relaxation techniques to calm anxieties in social settings. There are many models that use this theme as a basis.
Models of Teaching
Selection, Detection, Connection Model — A self-directed teaching model for highly intrinsically motivated high school students. Strengthens responsibility towards self and others. This model has rules and structure and specified intentions. Cooperative or Collaborative Learning: Collective arrangement and division of tasks, sharing results and ideas.
There are also cooperative models that have more specific purposes like the Jigsaw Model.
Graffiti is a cooperative learning structure in which students are asked to give written responses to questions posed by a teacher Group Investigation: Focuses on interpersonal group skills as students engage in acquiring information Jigsaw Model: As an educational model it falls into the Social Family of methods. The teacher poses a question: The common student misconception that equilibrium means equal amounts in each container is challenged as students develop an understanding of the principle of equilibrium.
Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. It is important to note, however, that assessment does not exist in isolation, but is closely linked to curriculum and instruction Graue, Thus as emphasized earlier, curriculum, assessment, and instruction should be aligned and integrated with each other, and directed toward the same goal Kulm, ; NCTM, ; Shepard, In advanced mathematics and science, that goal is learning with understanding.
This section reviews design principles for two types of assessments: To guide instruction, teachers need assessments that provide specific BOX Reliability, Validity, and Fairness Reliability generally refers to the stability of results.
Relationship Between Curriculum and Instruction
For example, the term denotes the likelihood that a particular student or group of students would earn the same score if they took the same test again or took a different form of the same test. Reliability also encompasses the consistency with which students perform on different questions or sections of a test that measure the same underlying concept, for example, energy transfer. Validity addresses what a test is measuring and what meaning can be drawn from the test scores and the actions that follow Cronbach, It should be clear that what is being validated is not the test itself, but each inference drawn from the test score for each specific use to which the test results are put.
Thus, for each purpose for which the scores are used, there must be evidence to support the appropriateness of inferences that are drawn. Fairness implies that a test supports the same inferences from person to person and group to group. Thus the test results neither overestimate nor underestimate the knowledge and skills of members of a particular group, for example, females. The goals and objects, scope and sequence, and guidelines are all part of the curriculum.
There is significant debate in the educational system regarding what the curriculum should be. Is academic knowledge facts and theory more important than technical knowledge practical and applied? In a specific sense, is English and History more important than shop class and home economics?
Throughout history, the educational system has also been used as a socializing agent whereby students are indoctrinated into a belief and value system. In these cases, school is used as a social change agent. The curriculum is designed in order to mold students thinking in areas such as ethnicity, religion, a shared national myth and many different agendas including: In these cases the curriculum is created to ignore or minimize facts, technique, and practical learning and is written in such a manner that the affective, moral and ethical aspects of thought are targeted.
Instruction refers to the way in which the content will be delivered.